The New Roman Missal Third Edition New Words: A Deeper Meaning, But The Same Mass
What is the Missale Romanum (Roman Missal)? • The ritual text for the celebration of Mass • Original version in Latin • Definitive text of the reformed liturgy
Brief History of Roman Missal • Earliest centuries of the Church: no books • Collections of prayers developed gradually (“libelli”--booklets) • Eventually larger more organized collections of prayers were assembled into “sacramentaries” (liber sacramentorum)—440-461—Pope Leo the Great
Brief History of Roman Missal • First liturgical books (“missals”) were found in monasteries (12th/13th centuries) • Contained prayers, biblical readings, chants, rubrics. • First book bearing the name “Missale Romanum” appeared in 1474.
Brief History of Roman Missal • Council of Trent (1570): Pope Pius V promulgated an edition of the Missale Romanum that was now obligatory throughout the Latin Church. • This was the first official attempt at uniformity in the celebration of the Mass.
Brief History of Roman Missal • Other editions of the Missale Romanum were subsequently promulgated to accommodate the ongoing evolution and development of the Liturgy.
Brief History of Roman Missal Popes Who Promulgated Revised Editions • 1604 – Pope Clement VIII • 1634 – Pope Urban VIII • 1884 – Pope Leo XIII • 1920 – Pope Benedict XV • 1962 – Pope John XXIII • 1970 – Pope Paul VI • 1975 – Pope Paul VI • 2002 – Pope John Paul II
Why A Need For A Revised Translation? • Third Edition of Roman Missal in Latin—2002 (Blessed Pope John Paul II) • New/Revised translation is consequently necessary
Why A Need For A Revised Translation? • Editio Typica Tertia contains • Prayers for celebration of recently canonized saints • Additional Prefaces • Additional Masses and Prayers for Various Needs and Intentions • Updated rubrics
Why A Need For A Revised Translation? • First translation in English (1973)—used a more dynamic principle of translation • Took some freedom with the structure and content of the Latin sentences. • Result? Idiomatic translations that sacrificed some of the nuances of the original Latin
Goals of the New Roman Missal • To achieve a greater adherence to the original Latin than previously • To achieve a more precise theology • To move from “dynamic equivalence” to “formal correspondence” in translation • To add freshness while avoiding needless repetition of some well-worn words.
Why Formal Correspondence Instead of Dynamic Equivalence? • Clearer connections between Scriptures and texts used at Mass • Time-honored traditional phrasing is recovered • Church’s faith is given clearer expression (“Lex orandi, Lex credendi”)
Value of Previous English Translation? • Served us well • Helped communities transition from praying in Latin to English • Showed how a good translation enhances our prayer • Laid foundation for vernacular • Church is now building upon that foundation
The Process Liturgiam Authenticam • Document issued by Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2001 • Instruction on the vernacular translation of the Roman Liturgy • Outlines principles and rules for translation
The Process Ratio Translationis • Issued by Congregation of Divine Worship (2007) outlining the specific rules for translation in English.
The Process • Highly Consultative • International Commission on English in the Liturgy (ICEL)—chartered to prepare English translations of liturgical texts on behalf of the conferences of Bishops of English speaking countries • USCCB/Other conferences: reviewed drafts and made recommendations
The Process • Vox Clara: special consultative committee of Bishops from English speaking countries • Final Approval (Recognitio)--Congregation for Diving Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments—approval (recognitio)
Four Parts of the Mass • Introductory Rites • Liturgy of the Word • Liturgy of the Eucharist • Concluding Rites
Four Parts of the Mass Introductory Rites • Everything that happens from the moment you stand until you sit down for the first time. • Entrance Antiphon (new translation)/Chant/Song • Sign of the Cross (as usual) • Greeting: Three options for priest
Four Parts of the Mass Introductory Rites (continued) • Greeting: Current TranslationNew Translation The Lord be with you. The Lord be with you. And also with you.And with your spirit. • Share a common response with Catholics around the world • This response is ancient in orgin/East and West/Apostolic Tradition • Connection to Scripture is clearer (Gal ^:18; 2 Timothy 4:22
CURRENT TRANSLATION NEW TRANSLATION Penitential Act Form A I confess to almighty God and to you, my brothers and sisters that I have sinned through my own fault in my thoughts and in my words, in what I have done, and in what I have failed to do; and I ask blessed Mary, ever virgin, all the angels and saints, and you, my brothers and sisters, to pray for me to the Lord, our God. I confess to almighty God and to you, my brothers and sisters, that I have greatly sinned in my thoughts and in my words, in what I have done and in what I have failed to do. through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault; thereforeI ask blessed Mary ever-Virgin all the Angels and saints and you, my brothers and sisters, to pray for me to the Lord our God.
Penitential Act Form A • “Greatly sinned:” better reflects the Scriptural origins of this text (1 Chron. 21:8) • “Through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault.”—threefold repetition is a way of clearly taking responsibility when it comes to our sins.
Penitential Act: Form B • Current TranslationNew Translation Priest: Lord, we have sinned against you. Lord, have mercy. All: Lord, have mercy. Priest: Lord, show us your mercy and love. All: And grant us your salvation Priest: Have mercy on us, O Lord. All: For we have sinned against you. Priest: Show us , O Lord, your mercy. All: And grant us your salvation.
Penitential Act: Form B • The changes in Form B better reflects the intention of this to be a dialogue or exchange between priest and people. • It also better reflects its origins in Baruch 3:2 and Psalm 85:8)
CURRENT TRANSLATION NEW TRANSLATION GLORIA Glory to God in the highest, and peace to his people on earth. Lord God, heavenly king, almighty God and Father, we worship you, we give you thanks, we praise you for your glory. Lord Jesus Christ, only Son of the Father, Lord God, Lamb of God, you take away the sin of the world; have mercy on us. you are seated at the right hand of the Father receive our prayer. For you alone are the Holy One, you alone are the Lord you alone are the Most High, Jesus Christ, with the Holy Spirit in the glory of God the Father. Amen. Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to people of good will We praise you, we bless you, we adore you, we glorify you, we give you thanks for your great glory, Lord God, heavenly King O God, almighty Father. Lord Jesus Christ, Only Begotten Son, Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, you take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us; you take away the sins of the world, receive our prayer; you are seated at the right hand of the Father, have mercy on us. For you alone are the Holy One, you alone are the Lord, you alone are the Most High, Jesus Christ, with the Holy Spirit, in the glory of God the Father. Amen.
GLORIA • The current English translation did a lot of shortening and simplifying: dropping verbs, adjectives, and even entire phrases. • The new translation expands the hymn back to its fuller form and more accurately translates the Latin.
CURRENT TRANSLATION NEW TRANSLATION Creed Part 1 We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all that is seen and unseen. We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, one in Being with the Father. Through him all things were made. For us men and our salvation he came down from heaven: by the power of the Holy Spirit he was born of the Virgin Mary, and became man. I believe in one God, the Father almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible. I believe in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only Begotten Son of God, born of the Father before all ages. God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, consubstantial with the Father; through him all things were made. For us men and for our salvation he came down from heaven, and by the Holy Spirit was incarnate of the Virgin Mary, and became man.
CURRENT TRANSLATION NEW TRANSLATION Creed Part 2 For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered, died, and was buried. On the third day he rose again in fulfillment of the Scriptures: he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end. For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate, he suffered death and was buried, and rose again on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end.
CURRENT TRANSLATION NEW TRANSLATION Creed: Part 3 We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. With the Father and the Son he is worshipped and glorified. He has spoken through the Prophets. We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. who with the Father and the Son is adoredand glorified. who has spoken through the prophets. I believe inone, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church. I confess one baptism for the forgiveness of sins and I look forward to the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen.
Creed • Revised translation is a more accurate translation of the Latin. • The vocabulary changes are more theologically precise: e.g. • “consubstantial”—same substance • “incarnate”—highlights the fact that Jesus’ human flesh came from Mary; not just born but was knit in her womb
CURRENT TRANSLATION NEW TRANSLATION The Preface Dialog Priest: The Lord be with you. All: And also with you. Priest: Lift up your hearts. All: We lift them up to the Lord. Priest: Let us give thanks to the Lord our God. All: It is right to give him thanks and praise. Priest: The Lord be with you. All: And with your spirit Priest: Lift up your hearts. All: We lift them up to the Lord. Priest: Let us give thanks to the Lord our God. All: It is right and just.
The Preface Dialog • “It is right and just”—It is not only right to praise God but it is our duty (“just”) • This phraseology also will connect the dialogue to the beginning of the preface: “it is right and just…”
CURRENT TRANSLATION NEW TRANSLATION Sanctus Holy, holy, holy Lord, God of power and might. Heaven and earth are full of your glory. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is he who comes I the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest. Holy, holy, holy Lord God of hosts. Heaven and earth are full of your glory. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is he who comes I the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.
Sanctus • The opening line more accurately reflects the ancient prayer of the Church and more clearly reflects Isaiah 6:3 by referring to “Lord God of hosts.”
CURRENT TRANSLATION NEW TRANSLATION Institution Narrative Take this, all of you, and eat it: this is my body which will be given up for you. Take this, all of you, and drink from it: this is the cup of my blood, the blood of the new and everlasting covenant It will he shed for you and for all so that sins may be forgiven. Do this in memory of me. Take this, all of you, and eat of it, for this is my Body, which will be given up for you. Take this, all of you, and drink from it, for this is the chalice of my Blood, the Blood of the new and eternalcovenant, which will be poured out for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins. Do this in memory of Me.
Institution Narrative • “Pro multis”—why this change? • The words in the Eucharistic prayer come from the Gospels of Matthew (26:28) and Mark (14:24); the Greek for “many” is used there and connects to Isaiah 53:11-12 • The Roman Rite has always said “pro multis” (for many) and not “pro omnibus” (for all) at this point in the Mass. • Theologically it is more correct. While salvation is offered to all, not all will accept God’s gift.
CURRENT TRANSLATION NEW TRANSLATION Memorial Acclamation Priest: Let us proclaim the mystery of faith. All: Dying your destroyed our death, rising you restored our life. Lord Jesus, come in glory. All: When we eat this bread and drink this cup, we proclaim your death, Lord Jesus, until you come in glory. All: Lord, by your cross and resurrection you have set us free. You are the Savior of the world. Priest: The mystery of faith All: We proclaim your death, O Lord, and profess your Resurrection until you come again. All :When we eat this Bread and drink this Cup, we proclaim your death, O Lord, until you come again. Save us, Savior of the world, For, by your Cross and Resurrection, you have set us free.
Memorial Acclamation • The change in the priest’s introduction more accurately shows that this is a dialogue between the priest and people. • The current translation makes it sound as if what follows is something that we all do together.
CURRENT TRANSLATION NEW TRANSLATION Invitation to Communion Priest: This is the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world. Happy are those who are called to his supper. All: Lord, I am not worthy to receive you, but only say the word and I shall be healed. Priest: Behold the Lamb of God, behold him who takes away the sins of the world. Blessed are those called to the supper of the Lamb. All: Lord, I am not worthy that you should enter under my roofbut only say the word and my soul shall be healed.
Invitation to Communion • The more literal rendering of the invitation to communion also makes the various connections t the Scriptures more clear: • John the Baptist’s identification of Jesus as the Lamb of God in John 1:29, • the supper of the Lamb in Revelation 19:9, and • the healing of the centurion’s servant in Luke 7:6-7 and Matthew 8:8.
CURRENT TRANSLATION NEW TRANSLATION Dismissal Go in the peace of Christ. The Mass in ended, go in peace. Go in peace to love and serve the Lord. Go forth, the Mass is ended. Go and announce the Gospel of the Lord. Go in peace, glorifying the Lord by your life. Go in peace.
Dismissal • These dismissals emphasize that we are missionaries sent into the world to proclaim the Gospel in word and deed. • The Church, which is all of us, is missionary in nature.
Resources • http://www.usccb.org/romanmissal/ • http://www.davenportdiocese.org/lit/litromanmissal.htm • http://www.ocp.org/articles/1227 • http://www.ltp.org/p-2284-whats-new-about-the-mass.aspx • http://www.saintagnes.org/parish/liturgy/romanmissal/romanmissalresources.html • http://www.romanmissalchanges.com/p/roman-missal-resources.html • http://www.dioceseoflansing.org/catechesis_k12/Roman_Missal_Children_Adolescents.pdf • http://www.dioceseofjoliet.org/reo/RomanMissalChildYouth.asp
This Session Is Ended Go And Announce The Gospel of the Lord!