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The Cold War

The Cold War. A Contest of Ideas Who Would Lead the 20 th Century World?. Political Ideologies. Communism No Private Property – State owns all No Free Enterprise or personal businesses No political parties or dissent allowed Capitalism & Democratic Gov’t.

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The Cold War

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  1. The Cold War A Contest of Ideas Who Would Lead the 20th Century World?

  2. Political Ideologies Communism No Private Property – State owns all No Free Enterprise or personal businesses No political parties or dissent allowed Capitalism & Democratic Gov’t. People control property & private gain is encouraged Economy is controlled by supply & demand - market Free elections allow choice of competing ideas

  3. Big 3 at Potsdam

  4. Potsdam • Truman, Churchill, Stalin discuss post-war world • Changes in leadership in US & England • Changes West’s view of Soviets – Truman’s distrust • 1st meeting between Truman & Stalin – Agree on: - “Zones of Occupation” - Self-Determination & Free Elections - United Nations

  5. AlliedZones of Occupation

  6. Early Competitors • April 1945 - Russians enter Berlin first & begin military control of economy and political system. Kept Allies out until July. • Allies begin setting up economic and political independence in their sectors. • Soviets begin to establish military control.

  7. Tension Builds • Stalin wants territory and reparations from Germany • US wants free enterprise and democracy to spread. Why? • Stalin influences governments all over Eastern Europe They become “Satellite Nations” - Why? • US opposes the domination – insists on free elections Why? • Both want control over access to Europe’s resources

  8. Containment • February 1946 – George Kennan proposes this US policy, to stop the spread of Communism. • March 1946 – Winston Churchill “coins the phrase” Iron Curtin • Stalin declares Churchill’s comment a “Call to War” The Cold War

  9. West’s View of Stalin’s Plans

  10. Truman Doctrine The United States should support free peoples throughout the world who are resisting takeovers by “armed minorities” or “outside pressures”. Unjustified Interference? Protecting our Interests? Began by sending Greece & Turkey $400 Million. Economic aid prevented Soviet domination.

  11. Marshall Plan • June 1947 – Secretary of State George Marshall proposes aid to Europe – for the Soviets too - to help fight hunger and poverty. Trade Barriers had to be removed! • Congress delays - debates spending $12.5 Billion, but approves when Soviet tanks invade Czechoslovakia. • Huge success for Europe’s economy – The Result -Communism loses appeal in Western Europe. Why?

  12. Back to Germany • Berlin 1948 – Europe &Germany recovering under Marshall Plan Allies combine their 3 zone Berlin too was divided into 4 zones. • Soviets fear total unification = loss of influence in Western Europe • Soviets cut off highways, water and rail into allied areas of West Berlin to try to force allies not to unify Germany.

  13. AlliedZones of OccupationBerlin Also Divided

  14. Berlin Airlift

  15. Berlin Airlift • 277,000 flights carrying food & supplies • 327 days and nights of flights • 2.3 Million tons of supplies – even Christmas presents Who looks good…Who looks bad?

  16. The NATO Response • Soviet blockade worries Allies about future aggression. • 10 Nations form defensive military alliance. • An attack against one will be an attack against all and would be resisted with armed force if necessary. • Cause – Soviet Aggression • Effect – 1 st US peacetime military alliance EVER END OF US ISOLATIONISM

  17. Warsaw Pact • Later in 1955, the Soviets form a military alliance in response to the NATO Alliance. • 7 Communist nations dominated by the Soviet • Exists more for better control over those 7 nations than for protection against the Western Alliance

  18. China – Communism Rebounds • Communism was active inChina too, since 1937. • Communist Mao Zedong fought the Military Nationalist leader Chaing Kai-Shek in a civil war, delayed only by Japan’s invasion. • Chiang acted fascist in brutalizing opposition, but Mao treated peasants better & won support. • US supports Chiang because he was no communist

  19. Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) Chairman Mao Zedong

  20. Civil War Resumes • From the end of WW II Communists & Nationalists fight again, while US tries to make peace. • May 1949 Communists drive Nationalists to the island of Taiwan (Formosa) where it sets up a government in exile. • Containment FAILS, and US supports Chiang. To this day we recognize 2 Chinas .

  21. US Battles Communism • 1947 – NSC – National Security Council Advice for the President on security matters • Decides in NSC-68 that containment and massive increases in defense spending would successfully fight globally expanding Communism. • Reasons now existed to spend $ on containment.

  22. Communism Spreads • When Japan surrenders to Allies in Korea, it does so in two places. • To Russians above the 38th Parallel • To the US below, so it became a boundary. • Two governments form – Communist in North & Democratic in the south. • June 1950 – North attacks South – Korean War • US supports South Korea & gets UN resolution

  23. US in Korean War • Domino Theory – If one falls…all fall. • MacArthur takes command of UN troops. • As of September 1950 NKs push through whole country – as far as Pusan on the Pacific coast. • MacArthur lands at Inchon, SKs push from Pusan and pus NKs to China border by October!

  24. Invasion and Counterattack

  25. China Turns the Tide • UN forces advance to China border (Yalu River) • China’s warnings ignored & they invade Korea • UN forces pushed back to 38th Parallel & fight there for 2 years to keep Seoul, the capitol. • MacArthur wants to fight China - Truman nixes it insists China is wrong enemy at wrong time. • Truman fires MacArthur when he goes to papers

  26. Stalemate in Korea • July 1953 – Russian proposed cease fire accepted • Communism contained, but Korea still divided and its influence still present. • Conflict of ideologies heated up • Uses other countries’ forces to fight for our vision of the world. • Communist spies suspected in the US

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