Nolan Roles Professor Collins AM 304 12/10/18 Multimedia Timeline – Film and Camera13th Century (1200 – 1299) Invention of Glasses Salvino D’armate 1284 1200 1225 1250 1275
14th Century (1300 – 1399) Renaissance 1300-1600 1300 1325 1350 1375
15th Century (1400 – 1499) Gutenberg Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg 1455 1400 1425 1450 1475
16th Century (1500 – 1599) Martin Luther’s 35 Theses Martin Luther 1517 Scientific Revolution Protestant Reformation 1517 - 1648 1543 1500 1525 1550 1575
17th Century (1600 – 1699) Portable Camera Obscura Telescope Concave / Convex Lenses Hans Lippershey Johann Zahn Johannes Kepler 1685 1611 1608 1600 1625 1650 1675
18th Century (1700– 1799) Achromatic Lenses John Dolland Silhouette Portraits 1758 1750 Benjamin Franklin’s 13 Virtues Benjamin Franklin 1726 Enlightenment 1715 - 1789 1700 1725 1750 1775
19th Century (1800 – 1850) Heliography Joseph Nicéphore 1822 Actinometer First Photo Book Anna Atkins John Herschel 1843 1825 Daguerreotype Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre First Photographic Studio 1839 Richard Beard 1841 1810 1820 1830 1840
19th Century (1851- 1899) Panoramic Camera Mathew Brady Stereoscope Thomas Sutton 1860 Charlie Chaplin 1859 Oliver Wendell Holmes 1889 - 1977 1861 First T.A. Submarine Cable Cyrus Field 1858 1851 1865 1875 1885
20th Century (1900 - 1950) First Electronic Television Kuleshov Effect John Wayne Orson Welles 1927 1921 Walt Disney 1907 - 1979 1915 - 1985 D.W. Griffith releases “Birth of a Nation” 1901 - 1966 Buster Keaton releases “The General” 1915 1926 Golden Age of Film Golden Age of Television Sergei Eisenstein releases “Battleship Potemkin” 1915 - 1963 1946 - 1960 1925 1900 1915 1930 1945
20th Century (1951 – 1999) Stan Brakhage release “The Art of Vision” Charles and Ray Eames release “Powers of Ten” Children’s Television Act 1965 Alfred Hitchcock releases “Psycho” 1977 Andrei Tarkovsky releases “Stalker” Public Television Act 1990 1960 1967 1979 1951 1965 1980 1945
Summaries (Click on term description to resume timeline) Glasses - D'armate realized that he could use glass to improve his vision. He created a device that used thick lenses with a curve form to correct his sight. Renaissance - A period in European history that began in the early 14th century and spanned all the way through the 17th century. The Renaissance was a rebirth for many European subjects including culture, art, and politics. Gutenberg Printing Press - Before the printing press, most books and other text were copied by hand, a time-consuming process. Because of this, it was harder to spread information around because very few copies could be made in a short amount of time. Johannes Gutenberg set out to find a faster way to put words on paper. He created a printing press with movable type that broke text down into individual characters that could be rearranged to form different sentences. Once the page was done, he'd coat the letters in ink, apply a firmpressure to a piece of paper on top of them, and pull out a completed document. Historians believe that without the invention of the printing press, there would be no Renaissance, no Industrial Revolution, and maybe no modern world. Protestant Reformation - The Protestant Reformation was a 16th Century European Movement initiated by Martin Luther that focused on religious, intellectual, political, and cultural upheaval against Western Christianity. Protestant Reformation figures include Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, and Martin Bucer. Martin Luther’s 35 Theses - Martin Luther angrily nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral, starting the Protestant Revolution. He was protesting the Catholic doctrine of indulgence. Scientific Revolution - The Scientific Revolution marked the emergence of modern science in Europe. Many early advancements were revolutionized during this time including Math, Astronomy, Biology, Physics, and Chemistry. These advancements changed perspecives of nature on society. Telescope Invented - As glassmaking methods improved in the late 1500s, glassmakers began holding up two lenses and discovering zoom. Hans Lippershey, a Dutch eyeglass maker, was the first person to apply for a patent for a telescope. As the story goes, he observed two children in his shop experimenting with holding up two lenses. When he found that the lenses could be used to zoom, he began constructing a device that would do the job on its own. Concave / Convex Lenses – In 1611, Johannes Kepler combined concave and convex lenses to correct distortions and aberrations. These discoveries would be a key stepping stone in the timeline of lenses and their evolving. Portable Camera Obscura - Johann Zahn invented a portable camera obscura. The principle was exactly the same as the large-scale camera obscurae but this one had a folding hood with a pane of glass. The image would appear on the glass and photographers would put paper on top of it and trace the image, seeing as light-sensitive film had not been made.
Summaries (continued) (Click on term description to resume timeline) 10. Enlightenment - Enlightenment was an early 18th Century intellectual movement that began to emphasize individualism and reason rather than traditional views. Enlightenment Thinkers included Francis Bacon, John Locke, and Rene Descartes. Enlightenment 11. Benjamin Franklin’s 13 Virtues - At the young age of 20, Benjamin Franklin created a system that he would use to define himself and his character in his autobiography. The 13 virtues include Temperance, Silence, Order, Resolution, Frugality, Industry, Sincerity, Justice, Moderation, Cleanliness, Tranquility, Chastity, and Humility. 12. Silhouette Portraits - Silhouette portraits are defined as two dimensional drawings of an outline of a person or object. Silhouette portraits were an inexpensive and fast way to capture likenesses. These were more common in England, France, and Germany. 13. Achromatic Lenses – In 1758, John Dollond, an English Optician, created achromatic lenses by combining crown and flint glasses. This eliminated chromatic aberration (distortion) in telescopes and lenses moving forward. 14. Heliography - The earliest process for creating photographs. Joseph Nicéphore had a hard time tracing images so he set out to create something that would capture the images for him. Still using a camera obscura as his camera, he coated glass and metal with Bitumen of Judea, which would harden when exposed to light. Later, he would wash the image with lavender oil, which would only leave the hardened (exposed) parts behind. 15. Actinometer - John Herschel built the first actinometer. It's a device that measures the number of photons in a beam of light. It is used to estimate light intensity for photography, essentially a light meter. 16. Daguerreotype - The Daguerreotype was the first commercially successful way to take photographs. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre set out to create a type of film which required less exposure time so that subjects didn't have to hold still for as long. After it's invention and introduction, people began opening up photography studios, but only the wealthy could pay the price for a photograph. However this new method with it's shorter exposure time paved the path for future photographic advances. 17. First Photographic Studio - Richard Beard purchased a license to use the daguerreotype camera and opened up the world's first photography studio. It was built on the roof of London's Royal Polytechnic Institution and was made entirely of glass, which was necessary because the Daguerreotype camera needed a lot of light to operate. 18. First Photo Book - Anna Atkins, a botanist and photographer) is credited with publishing the first book illustrated with pictures. The book is called "Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions". She used the cyanotype photographic process and wrote text by hand. It was never mass produced.
Summaries (continued) (Click on term description to resume timeline) 19. First Transatlantic Submarine Cable Connected - Cyrus Field concieved the idea of a telegraph cable lying on the ocean floor of the Atlantic Ocean in 1854. He spent years planning, developing, and funding the cable. Once completed, the cable quickly failed but he was quick to start planning a new one. 20. Panoramic Camera - Thomas Sutton designed a wide angle lens and found that when combined with a curved glass wet-plate negative, would produce a panoramic photograph. Its angle of field was 140 degrees. The contraption was made by Thomas Ross. 21. Mathew Brady (1822 – 1896) - As the photographic process improved, photographers began striving to document things that the public eye was unfamiliar with. One of these photographers, Matthew Brady, took his camera as well as a portable studio and darkroom onto the battlefield to document the American Civil War. For the first time, the public was able to witness the brutal reality of war, which had been glorified at the time. Brady's images showed what life was like at the camps, battle preparations, and the feelings before and after battles. Because the photographic process didn't allow movement, he was not able to capture battle scenes. He could only capture subjects sitting still. 22. Stereoscope - Oliver Wendell Holmes created a handheld, streamline stereoscope to replace older versions of the stereoscope. The device lets users look at two pictures, one out of each eye. The picture on the left reflects what the left eye sees and the picture on the right reflects what the right eye sees. When used, the viewer feels like they are in the picture, an early version of virtual reality. 23. Kodak Camera – In the late 1880’s, George Eastman created and promoted his simple and revolutionary cameras that were cheap and could be used by amateur and new photoraphers. Each camera would come with 100 exposyres for a cheap price of $25. Eastman would coin the phrase, ”You press the button, we do the rest” for his invention to strengthen its simplicity. 24. Charlie Chaplin - Charlie Chaplin was a British actor, filmmaker, comic, and composer who was one of the crucial and key figures in early filmmaking with films such as "City Lights", "The Great Dictator", and "Modern Times". 25. Kinetoscope – The kinetoscope was a breakthrough device created in 1891 by William Kennedy Laurie Dickson and a team assembled by Thomas Edison. The kinetoscope is a motion-picture exhibition machine that allows the user to view the images via peephole. 26. Walt Disney - An American animator, producer, voice actor, and entrepreneur who pioneered the film animation industry. Walt is also well known for the founding of the Walt Disney Company and its four operations: Media Networks, Parks / Resorts, Studio Entertainment, and Consumer Products / Interactive Media. 27. John Wayne - Marion Mitchell Morrison, known famously as John Wayne, was an American filmmaker and actor who is well known for his work in "True Grit", "Rio Bravo", and "El Dorado". Wayne has plenty of Western movies that are known as classics under his belt, or bandolier. 28. Golden Age of Film - The Golden Age of film that occurred during the 20th Century got its name from the massive amounts of money that movies were bringing in. Films and the industry were booming and movie stars including Charlie Chaplin rose to fame during this time. Glitter and sparkles started to film the film screens, also adding to the name.
Summaries (continued) (click on term description to resume timeline) 29. D.W. Griffith Releases ”Birth of a Nation” - Film historians believe that "The Birth of a Nation" is one of the most significant films in American cinema. It contains a plethora of new effects and cinematic techniques and is explicitly racist. 30. Orson Welles- An American actor, writer, director, and producer who is well known for many of his works, most notably Citizen Kane. 31. Kuleshov Effect - The Kuleshov effect demonstrates how the order and subject in a series of clips can drastically change the audience's perception of the story. He showed an emotionless face followed by a brown of soup, then the same face followed by a girl in a coffin, then the same face followed by an attractive woman. In each scenario, the audience members felt different emotions in the expressionless face even though the face never changes. Kuleshov determined that montage is what defines a film. 32. Sergei Eisenstein releases “Battleship Potemkin” - This Soviet silent film was Eisenstein's tribute to the early Russian revolutionaries. The film is broken down into five acts, with the fourth (The Odessa Steps) being the most famous. It's a large action scene that shows the massacre of the citizens as they run down the steps. This act is an example of dialectical montage. Eisenstein believed that the meaning of the scene is found in the opposing shots (the calm sailors marching in time with each other contrasts with the panicking citizens fleeing and falling in all directions). 33. Buster Keaton releases “The General” - Buster Keaton was a silent film actor and stuntman who is most known for silent-comedic performances while retaining a straight face. "The General" is a film in which Keaton follows a stolen locomotive in an attempt to get it back. 34. First Electronic Television – In 1927, a 21 year old inventor named Philo Taylor Farnsworth first displayed his electronic television in San Francisco. Farnsworth was a scientist and inventor who ironically lived without electricity in house until he was 14 years old. 35. Golden Age of Television – The Golden Age of Television was an era of television production when Television viewing was becoming a serious national medium and was starting to be used more commonly. Many live shows and productions began to create work to an expanding and eager crowd. 36. Alfred Hitchcock Releases “Psycho” - "Psycho" is considered the "Mother of all horror suspense films." It set the stage for bloody violence and graphic killings. It also broke the film conventions at the time by staring a female protagonist, a bathroom, and most-famously, a shower scene with screeching music, blood, and thrill. It was also low-budget. 37. Stan Brakhage releases “The Art of Vision” -Brakhage's films don't display any distinction between perception and vision. "The Art of Vision" is the story of a man who takes his dog up a mountain to chop down a tree. On the way, he has multiple transcendental experiences that happen in no particular order. It's an abstract film and an experimental one at that that's received mixed reviews. Brakhage referred to his work as "visual music" and his films usually didn't ha
Summaries (continued) (click on term description to resume timeline) 38. Public Television Act – The Publishing Television Act was enacted by the 90th U.S. Congress in 1967 which is what established public broadcasting in the United States. Public Broadcasting Service, National Public Radio, and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting were also established from the Public Television Act. 39. Charles and Ray Eames release “Powers of Ten” - "Powers of Ten" is one of the most famous short films ever made and is used to demonstrate the importance of teaching scales. It starts with a couple enjoying a picnic then zooms out to reveal the Earth, the galaxy, and even other galaxies. Then it zooms in to a hand and shows the skin cells and the DNA within. In 1998, it was selected for preservation for being “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant.” 40. Andrei Tarkovsky releases “Stalker” - This was Tarkovsky's fifth feature film and his second take at a science fiction film. In the film, a writer and a professor follow the "stalker" to a place called the Zone. Within the Zone is a room where wishes are granted but it is under high security and hard to get to. 41. Children’s Television Act – The Children’s Television Act is an act that was put in place by the 101st U.S. Congress in 1990 that regulates the programming that’s broadcasted by the television stations in the United States. This act placed restrictions not only on the shows themselves but also the advertising and commercials as well.