Adaptive Technology Jennifer E. Sesay February 1st 2005
Outline • Definition and Importance Adaptive Technology (A.T) • History of Adaptive Technology • Who develops these Software • Various Disabilities • Technology for People with Visual Disability • Technology for People with Motor Disability • Technology for People with Hearing Disability
Definition and Importance of Adaptive Technology • Also known as assistive technology • Use of any item, equipment or system to increase and improve functional capabilities for individuals with disabilities. • Importance: Help people with disabilities
History of Adaptive Technology • The field of adaptive technology has been around for at least 20 years • Universally used technology began as assistive technology • Other general use technology were later adapted to help people with disabilities
Who Develops HCI Software • HCI : Human Computer Interaction • UsabilityEngineer: sit on the Observer side and test software • Software Test Engineer:Tests and critiques software to assure quality and identify potential improvement opportunities and projects. • Developers and programmers
Some Adaptive Technology used in the past • Typewriters • Tape recorders • Auditory trainers • Alert master for hearing loss • Handheld Talking Book • Books on Tape
Various Disabilities • Visual disability: Blind or Low Vision • Motor disability: Quadriplegics • Hearing disability: Deaf • AT could also be used for learning disabilities
Technology for people with Visual or Reading disability • Braille Software • Braille Voyager • Speech Synthesizer • Visual Cursor Enhancer • Keyboard Audio Feedback • Screen Reader • Magnifier • Voice Output Applications • Braille Lite Notetaker • MyReader
Braille Software and Embosser • Perky computer based braille emulator equivalent of a printer • Braille translation software is available to convert typed or scanned text into a format that can be output on an embosser. Portable Braille Embosser • Cost :$2,895.00
Braille Voyager • Braille Board • USB Connection • Uses 5% power consumption
Braille Lite Note Taker Features • A built-in modem • E-mail program • Compact Flash slot • Operating System • PC Connection Card • Date book, Phone book • Programs • Scientific calculator clock • Stopwatch • Pentium 90 • Memory • Hard Drive Size • Size • Serial and parallel ports • Cost: $3,395
Voice Output Application Ovation • Easily scan and store text of any kind and convert it to adjustable audio-output. • Can store up to 20 pages
Voice Output Applications Cont’d • Lightwriters are text-to-speech communication aids engineered for individuals with speech impairments or reading disabilities
MyReader • People with low vision • Magnifier
Visual Cursor Enhancer • Improves the visibility of a mouse cursor
Keyboard Audio Feedback • Gives spoken feedback for keys that are used Example: TALKEYS is a Windows program that speaks out the keys on the keyboard as you type them into any Windows program.
Screen Readers • Screen reader is software that works together with a speech synthesizer to read aloud everything contained on a computer screen, including icons, menus Example: Jaws for windows Cost: $895.00 - $1,295.00
Magnifier • Lupe : Utility that magnifies whatever is underneath your cursor
Technology for People with Hearing disability Technology for People with Hearing disability • NetTalk-VTMTsoftware: personal communications software that allows you to use compatible voice modems to make and receive TTY calls.
Personal Communicator • A Tool for Learning and Communicating in American Sign Language and English
Technology for people with Writing or Motor disability • Onscreen keyboard • Abbreviations/Expansions • Word prediction/Completion • Voice Input Applications • Keyboard Modifications and shortcuts • Mouse Enhancers
On-Screen Keyboard • Windows XP On-Screen Keyboard : Allows all keyboard functions to be accomplished by a mouse or switch
Penfriend Multilanguage keyboard • Now with keyboards for many languages where their colour and size and font size can be adjusted to suit the user.
Abbreviations/Word Prediction • Abbreviations can represent any text • a long, hard-to-type word such as your name and address • a standard end of letter salutation • an entire paragraph of legal or medical text • Word Prediction Assistive software to reduce the number of keystrokes necessary for individuals with mobility impairment, making it easier to communicate
Voice Input Applications • Allows speech input to control computer functions, writing, and/or communicating through computer audio communications • ScanDragon Naturally Speaking v7.0
Speech Recognition • Speech Recognition on a MAC
Keyboard Modifications • Easy Access: Included as part of Easy Access are three main features: Mouse Keys, Sticky Keys, and Slow Keys. • Sticky Keys - allows the user to press one key at a time for any command that requires simultaneously pressing two or more keys. • Slow Keys - delays the keyboard's acceptance of a key, so if a key is accidentally hit, the keyboard will not recognize it.
Keyboard Shortcuts • Adding Command Key Shortcuts is a complete step-by-step instruction (with pictures) on how to assign keyboard shortcuts to any menu item in any application. Freeware
Mouse Enhancers • Mouse for Paraplegics with all of the functions of a standard 4 button mouse wheel • Cost: $750.00
USB Integra Mouse • Integra Mouse enables the user to activate all Mouse Functions. • Only 10 grams of lip pressure is required for mouse control and left or right clicks are triggered by variations of air pressure in the oral cavity and in the mouth piece.
No Hands Mouse • Eliminates the use of your hands making it beneficial for users with repetitive stress injuries, rheumatism • Two foot pedals are used; one allows you to control both cursor speed and direction while the second pedal is used as a clicking device.
Head Mouse • HeadMouse Extreme replaces a standard computer mouse for people who cannot use their hands. • It operates from the top of a computer monitor, laptop computer and measures the user's head movements. • The wireless sensing technology employs infrared light to track a small disposable target that is placed on the user's forehead or glasses. • Clicking by looking at a target for specific amount of time
EyeGaze Tracking System Quick Glance 2 • Place the mouse pointer simply by looking at the desired location. - Click with an eye blink, a hardware switch, or by staring • Cost: $4,480 - 6,480
EyeGaze Tracking System • Control Keys displayed on the screen • a person can synthesize speech, control his environment (lights, appliances, etc.) • Type a letter • Operate a telephone • Run computer software • Operate a computer mouse, and access the Internet and e-mail.
How does the EyeGaze System work? • a specialized video camera mounted below the monitor observes one of the user's eyes • Sophisticated image processing software in the EyeGaze System's computer continually analyzes the video image of the eye and determines where the user is looking on the screen. • uses infrared light to illuminate the eye
Calibration on the Eye Gaze System • 15 Second Evaluation • To calibrate, the user fixes his gaze on a sequence of small circles that the system displays on the Eyegaze screen • Done only once
How does the EyeGaze System work? • Eyegaze System uses the Pupil-Center/Corneal-Reflection method to determine the eye's gaze direction. • Specialized image-processing software in the Eyegaze computer identifies and locates the centers of both the pupil and corneal reflection.
Phrase Program • Phrase Program along with a speech synthesizer are used for quick communication for non-verbal users.
Telephone Program • Allows the user to place and receive calls. • Frequently used numbers are stored in a telephone "book“ • Non-verbal users may access the speech synthesizer to talk on the phone.
Typewriter program • OnScreen Key board
Lights and Appliances Program • Computer-controlled switching equipment, provides Eyegaze control of lights and appliances anywhere in the home or office. • No special house wiring is necessary. • The user turns appliances on and off by looking at a bank of switches displayed on the screen.
Read Text Program • Read Text • Turn Pages