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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

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  1. Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division

  2. Vocabulary • Word Sort

  3. Largest Cell?

  4. Largest Cell? Giant Squid – Nerve Cells Up to 36 Feet!

  5. Section 10-1 Cell GrowthWhat problems does growth cause for cells? • Limits to cell growth • Why do cells divide rather than continue to grow indefinitely? • DNA Overload • Exchanging Materials

  6. Section 10-1 Cell GrowthWhat problems does growth cause for cells? I. Limits to cell growth 1. Why do cells divide rather than continue to grow indefinitely? a.The ___________ the cell is the more demands are placed on the cell’s _____ b.Its more difficult to move enough ____________ and ___________ across the cell membrane larger DNA wastes nutrients

  7. Section 10-1 Cell GrowthWhat problems does growth cause for cells? • I. Limits to cell growth • 2. “DNA Overload”: • DNA controls_______________ ; found in nucleus of eukaryotes • b. DNA meets the needs of the cell when the cell is_________, however as the cell increases in size, the DNA cannot meet its needs anymore  “_____________” Cell function small Information Crisis

  8. Section 10-1 Cell GrowthWhat problems does growth cause for cells? I. Limits to cell growth 3. Exchanging Materials:   a. ________, _________, and _______ enter a cell through its cell membrane. b. _____________ leave the same way.   c. Rate of this exchange depends on the surface area to volume ratio Food oxygen water Waste Products

  9. Section 10-1 Cell GrowthWhat problems does growth cause for cells? II. Surface Area to Volume Ratio 1. To obtain the ratio of surface area to volume, __________ the surface area by the volume. divide

  10. Cell Sizes Surface Area lengthxwidthx6 54 cm2 24 cm2 6 cm2 Volume Lengthxwidthxheight 27cm3 8 cm3 1 cm3 2:1 6:1 3:1 Ratio of surface area to volume

  11. Section 10-1 Cell GrowthWhat problems does growth cause for cells? • II. Surface Area to Volume Ratio • Notice that volume _________ much more rapidly than surface area.  • This causes the ______________________ • _________________, which is a serious problem for the cell.  • As cells get _________ it makes it more difficult to get sufficient amounts of oxygen and nutrients in and waste products out. increases surface area to volume ratio to decrease Too large

  12. Section 10-1 Cell GrowthWhat problems does growth cause for cells? Question: How does an organism get bigger if the cells that it is made of do not get larger?  Answer: _____________________ It grows more cells.

  13. Section 10-1 Cell GrowthWhat problems does growth cause for cells? III. Division of the Cell   1. Before the cell gets too large it divides into two “_________” cells daughter

  14. Section 10-1 Cell GrowthWhat problems does growth cause for cells? III. Division of the Cell 2. The process is called ___________________. Cell division solves the problem of cells getting too large by _______________ while __________________ (more small cells instead of one large cell) Cell division Increasing size reducing volume

  15. Section 10-1 Cell GrowthWhat problems does growth cause for cells? III. Division of the Cell 3.Before cell division, the cell ____________, or copies, its entire DNA. This solves the problem of ___________________ because each daughter cell gets a complete set of __________ information replicates information storage genetic

  16. Section 10-1 Cell GrowthWhat problems does growth cause for cells? III. Division of the Cell 4.Each cell has an increase in ratio of surface area to volume that allows for more efficient __________________ with the environment. exchange of materials

  17. IQ # 1 10.1-10.2 • Why is it advantageous to have smaller cells as opposed to larger cells? • Explain “DNA Overload”? • Draw a chromosome and label its parts. • Define Mitosis. What is the difference between Mitosis and Cell Division?

  18. Agenda • IQ # 1 & Check Homework • Lecture and Discussion 10.2 • Overhead Drawings • Homework – 10.1 Section Assessment

  19. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? All cell division must involve the replication of DNA before cell division so the genetic information can be transferred to the daughter cells. In Prokaryotes the rest of cell division is simply to __________________. In Eukaryotes the division is more complex it occurs in two stages: a.Mitosis: ________________________ b.______________: division of the cytoplasm WHY ARE THEY DIFFERENT? divide the contents division of the nucleus Cytokinesis

  20. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? Unicellular organisms use mitosis and cytokinesis to ________________. This is a type of _______________ reproduction producing two identical daughter cells from ______ identical parent cell. reproduce asexual one

  21. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? Multicellular organisms use mitosis and cytokinesis to _________________________ ____________________________ add new cells to the organism for growth and development

  22. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? I. Chromosomes 1.Chromosomes are composed are ______ and __________ (histones) and carry the genetic information in eukaryotic cells. a.Each species of organism has a _________ ________ of chromosomes. 1.Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit Fly) has ___ chromosomes 2.Humans have ____ chromosomes DNA proteins specific number 8 46

  23. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? I. Chromosomes b.Chromosome are ___________ except during cell division. (known as ___________ when not dividing) Not visible chromatin

  24. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? I. Chromosomes c.Replication (copying) of the DNA occurred _______________________ therefore every chromosome is actually two identical “______” chromatids before cell division sister

  25. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? I. Chromosomes d. Pair of chromatids connected to each other ___________, usually located near the center of the chromosome. centromere

  26. centromere Sister chromatids http://www.biostudio.com/demo_freeman_dna_coiling.htm

  27. Chromosome Drawing

  28. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? II.The Cell Cycle 1.Cell Cycle: the series of events the cell goes through as they ________________ separated by periods of “in-between” time called ___________. grow and divide interphase

  29. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? II. The Cell Cycle 2.During the cell cycle the cell ________, prepares for __________, and divides to form two daughter cells, each of which then __________________________. 3. _______ phases of the cell cycle grows division begins the cycle again Four

  30. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? III.Events of the Cell Cycle a.G1 phase: __________, increase in size and ______________ new proteins and organelles. b.S phase: chromosome __________ (synthesis) cell growth synthesize replication

  31. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? III.Events of the Cell Cycle c.G2 phase: shortest of the phases, organelles and molecules required for ___________ are produced. d.M Phase: _________and ____________ G1, S, and G2 are all taking place during ____________ : the phase between divisions. cell division mitosis cytokinesis interphase

  32. Cell Cycle Drawing

  33. Agenda • Lecture and Discussion 10.2 • Overhead Drawings • Homework – 10.2 Section Assessment

  34. G1 M-phase s G2

  35. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? • I.Mitosis • The mitotic phase can be sub-divided into four phases ______________, _____________,_____________ and _____________ (PMAT). metaphase prophase anaphase telophase

  36. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? I.Mitosis b.Mitosis is strictly _____________ division. Difference between Cell Division and Mitosis? c. Mitosis is followed by cytoplasmic division, or ___________, to complete cell division nuclear cytokinesis

  37. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? I.Mitosis d.Mitosis results in two “daughter cells”, which are ________ to each other, and is used for growth and asexual reproduction. identical

  38. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? I.Mitosis e.The growth and synthesis phases are collectively called _________ (i.e. in between cell division). Interphase

  39. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? I.Mitosis f. The only source of genetic variation in the cells is via __________. How do mutations form? mutations

  40. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? Interphase Stage between division ·This is when the cell is not dividing, but is carrying out its ____________________. ·Chromatin _____ visible ·_____, histones and centrioles all replicated ·Replication of ______________ e.g. mitochondria, occurs in the cytoplasm. ·G1, S and G2 phases are occurring normal cellular functions is not DNA cell organelles

  41. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? Prophase Beginning of mitosis (nuclear division) • chromosomes ___________ and become ___________. • Due to DNA replication during interphase, each chromosome consists of two identical sister ______________ connected at the ____________ • centrioles move to _________ poles of cell (in animal cells) • Nucleolus ______________ • Spindle fibers (microtubules) begin to form and ___________ to chromosomes near the centromere • Phase ends with the breakdown of the _________________ condense visible chromatids centromere opposite disappears attach nuclear envelope

  42. 10-2 Cell Division centrioles equator split separate opposite

  43. 10-2 Cell DivisionWhat are the main events of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? disperse Nuclear membrane reform