Puberty Objectives: • Explain puberty and identify its signs. • Formulate and express opinions on the trends in puberty onset. • Define Puberty… • Define Adolescence…
Puberty • Process of physical changes by which a child’s body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. • Adolescence is the period of psychological and social transition between childhood and adulthood.
Puberty Changes • What are some changes that a person experiences during puberty? • Which changes do both genders experience? • Which changes are physical? Which are social and emotional? • What are some myths about these changes?
Learning about Puberty • Where or from whom do we learn about puberty changes? • Where do misunderstandings about puberty change come from? • Who can we ask for correct information if we have questions or concerns?
Do males & females go through puberty at the same age? • Changes can happen at different times, beginning as early as 8 and continue until 18. • Girls usually experience puberty earlier than boys. (Girls: 8-16, Boys: 10-18) • Every person has a body clock right for them. You can’t choose when to start puberty or stop it.
Gender • The state of being male or female • Sexuality • Capacity for sexual feelings
Gender Identity • Gender Expression • Biological Sex • Sexual Orientation
Defining Gender • Gender Identity • How you, in your head, define your gender
Defining Gender • Gender Expression • The ways you present gender • Actions • Dress • Demeanor
Defining Gender • Biological Sex • The physical characteristic you’re born with and develop • Gentalia • Body shape • Hormones • Voice pitch
Defining Sexuality • Sexual Orientation
For your category, answer… • Does our culture affect a person’s _______________? • If yes, how? • If no, then what determines it?
Puberty Onset • Definition of onset varies. Usually it’s the first physical changes. • Affected by both genetic factors (accounting for 50% of variation in timing) and environmental factors (nutritional state and social factors)
Puberty Trends • Maximal adult height is usually achieved at an average age of 14.5 years for American girls and 17.5 years for American boys. • Potential fertility usually occurs before growth completion by 1-2 years in girls and 3-4 years in boys. • Age of occurrence had dropped greatly since 1840’s.
Sexual Health Reproductive Anatomy and physiology
Reproductive Anatomy & Physiology • Objectives • Identify the major organs of the male and female reproductive system • Describe the primary function of the reproductive organs
Circumcision rates declining in U.S., study says CBS News 2012 • Circumcision rate in newborns declined from 83% in 1960s to 77% in 2010 –CDC • Over their lifetime, ½ of all uncircumcised males will contract a medical condition related to foreskin- Mayo Clinic
Sexual Health Reproductive Processes
Reproductive Processes • Objectives: • Explain the processes of sperm production, ovulation, and conception.
Menstrual Cycle • On average, a 28 day cycle • Menstruation occurs days 1-5 • Ovulation occurs around day 14 • Lining of the uterus thickens with blood • Egg travels through fallopian tube and enters uterus • Egg dissolves if unfertilized and uterus sheds lining
Sperm Production • 70 days from germ cell to that found in sperm • Produced in testicles • Pass into epididymis over 2-10 days and gain ability to move • 90% of semen is produced from prostate and seminal vesicles and not the testis
Sexual Intercourse • The union of the external sex organs • Its primary evolutionary purpose is the reproduction and continued survival of the human species • The erect penis is inserted into the vagina • Ejaculation then delivers semen from the penis into the vagina
Fertilization • How many sperm are ejaculated during each ejaculation? • How many eggs are usually released during a menstrual cycle? • How long do sperm “live” inside a woman’s body? • How long does an egg “live” inside a woman’s body?
Fertilization • Will pregnancy occur every time sexual intercourse occurs? • When does pregnancy occur? • What can happen when more than one egg is released?
Questions Answered • How many sperm are ejaculated during each ejaculation? • • Between 40 million to 600 million (avg. 250 million) sperm can be ejaculated during each ejaculation. • How many eggs are usually released during a menstrual cycle? • • Usually one egg is released. • How long does an egg “live” inside a woman’s body? • • 12-24 hours from the time of ovulation. • How long do sperm “live” inside a woman’s body once ejaculated? • • 3 to 5 days from the time of ejaculation.
Questions Answered • Will a pregnancy occur every time sexual intercourse occurs? • • No. Pregnancy only happens if sperm can fertilize an egg. • When does a pregnancy occur? • • When a sperm fertilizes an egg and implants on the uterine wall. This can happen if intercourse takes place within the period of ovulation. • • Women are most likely to become pregnant if intercourse happens around the middle of the menstrual cycle. Each woman has a different length of menstrual cycle, so it is difficult to predict.
• If both eggs are fertilized, it means a woman may have fraternal twins.
• Identical twins happen when the fertilized egg splits into two before cells begin dividing.
Sexual Health Pregnancy
Placenta- Barrier & Filter • Temporary organ formed in the uterus after egg attaches • Barrier between blood of mother and fetus • Transports nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus (harmful substances too) • Transports waste and CO2 from fetus to mother • Produces hormones for fetal development
Pregnancy Stages • 40 weeks • 9 months • 3 trimesters • Each 3 months • Baby may survive if born after 23 weeks but will require much medical assistance. • Baby has best change of being born healthy and surviving if born at full term.
Sexual Health Contraception
Contraception • Objectives • Identify a variety of contraceptive options and how they are used. • Analyze factors that influence the choice, use, and effectiveness of contraception, including risk-reduction and risk-elimination strategies.
Contraception • Prevention of conception or pregnancy • Can prevent pregnancy by: • Stopping the woman’s body from releasing an egg • Stopping the egg and sperm from joining • Stopping a fertilized egg from attaching to the wall of the uterus
Methods of Contraception • Abstinence • Hormonal Methods • Barrier Methods • Spermicidal Methods • Intrauterine Devices • Other Options
Abstinence • Not having sexual intercourse • 100% effective in preventing pregnancy • Best protection against STDs
Hormonal Methods • Birth control pill • Stops woman’s body from releasing an egg each month • Taken daily • Emergency contraceptive pill • High hormone dose stop egg release and joining with sperm or fertilized egg from attaching to uterus • Used within 72 hours of unprotected sex