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Chapter 29

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Chapter 29

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  1. Chapter 29 Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad, 1912–1916

  2. I. The “Bull Moose” Campaign of 1912 • Republicans nominate Howard Taft • Progressives (Bull Moose) = Theodore Roosevelt • New Nationalism philosophy • Favored continued consolidation of trusts & labor unions • Increased regulatory agencies in Washington • Campaigned for woman suffrage & more social welfare • Democrats nominate Woodrow Wilson • New Freedom program • Called for stronger antitrust legislation • Banking reform • Tariff reduction

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  4. II. Woodrow Wilson: A Minority President • 1912 Election returns Wilson(D) TR(P) Taft(R) Electoral 435 88 8 Popular 6,296,547 4,118,571 3,484,720 • Democrats won a majority in Congress • Socialists (Debs) won ~6% of vote (900,672 votes) • Progressivism was the real winner

  5. Map 29-1 p663

  6. III. Wilson: The Idealist in Politics • The second Democratic president since 1861 • Believed in self-determination and in the masses • Wilson’s burning idealism • Desired to reform ever-present wickedness • His moral righteousness made compromise • He had a strong and inflexible personaility

  7. IV. Wilson Tackles the Tariff • Wilson’s attacked“the triple wall of privilege” • The tariff, the banks, and the trusts • Announced in 1st State of the Union address • The Underwood Tariff • Appealed to the people • And ‘public opinion’ worked • He secured late in 1913 final approval of the bill he wanted • Provided for a substantial reduction of rates • In 1916 the Sixteenth Amendment was ratified • Income tax would replace tariffs

  8. IV. Wilson Tackles the Tariff(cont.) • The Underwood Tariff: • When challenged by lobbyists, • Wilson promptly issued a combative message to the people urging them to hold their elected representatives in line • Public opinion worked: • He secured late in 1913 final approval of the bill he wanted • Provided for a substantial reduction of rates: • Land mark in tax legislation: • By the ratified Sixteenth Amendment—Congress enacted a graduated income tax beginning with a moderate levy over $3,000 • By 1917 revenue from the income tax shot ahead of revenue from the tariffs.

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  10. V. Wilson Battles the Bankers • Banks had a antiquated & inadequate system • Developed during the Civil War • The Aldrich report recommended • Third Bank of the United States with branches • The Federal Reserve Act (1913) • Federal Reserve Board appointed by POTUS • Oversee a nationwide system of 12 reserve districts • The board could issue ‘paper money’ • Able to get nation through WWI (1914-1918) • Created a modern banking system • Like other developed nations

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  12. VI. The President Tames the Trusts • Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) • Investigated unfair trade practices • Unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, adulteration, and bribery • The Clayton Anti-Trust (1914) • Made illegal price discrimination and interlocking directorates (holding companies) • Conferred long-overdue benefits on labor: • Exempted labor/agricultural workers from anti-trust laws • Legalized strikes and peaceful picketing

  13. VII. Wilsonian Progressivism at High Tide • The Federal Farm Loan Act (1916) • Highway construction, agricultural extension • La Follette Seaman’s Act (1915) • The Workingmen’s Compensation Act (1916) • For federal civil-service employees • The Adamson Act (8 hour workday)(1916) • Reformer Louis D. Brandeis to SCOTUS • Wilson didn’t try to improve treatment of blacks

  14. VIII. New Directions in Foreign Policy • Wilson against imperialism and dollar diplomacy • The Jones Act (1916) • Promised Philippines independence when stable • His Japanese situation (1913) • Law prohibited Japanese from owning land • Feds encouraged loophole to lease land for 3 years • The Haiti political situation (1914-1915) • Political rebellion, cruel dictator killed • Wilson dispatched marines (for 19 years) • Dominican Republic (1916) • Under American control for next 18 years • U.S. bought Virgin Islands from Denmark (1917)

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  16. IX. Moralistic Diplomacy in Mexico • Mexican revolution (1913) • Increased immigration to the U.S. • U.S. sent weapons • The Tampico Incident (1914) • U.S. sailors captured, released, but not saluted • War avoided by negotiations • “Pancho” Villa attacks Americans • In Mexico and New Mexico (Jan – Feb 1916) • General John J. (“Black Jack”) Pershing • Leads invasion of Mexico and attacked Villa troops

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  19. X. Thunder Across the Sea • Europe’s ‘powder keg’ explodes • Francis Ferdinand (A-H heir to throne) assassinated • An explosive chain reaction followed • A-H, Serbia, Russia, Germany, France, GB at war • Central Powers vs The Allies: • Americans thankful for oceans to separate us • America felt strong, snug, smug, and secure • But not for long.

  20. XI. A Precarious Neutrality • Both sides wooed the United States • The British enjoyed: • Cultural, linguistic, and economic ties with America • The advantage of controlling the transatlantic cables • The Germans and the Austro-Hungarians • Had fewer, but more recent immigrants in the U.S. • Most Americans • Were anti-German from the outset, tool autocratic • Heavily influenced b y British propaganda • Upset b/c German spy left sabotage plans on el (1915) • Earnestly hoped to stay out of the horrible war

  21. XII. America Earns Blood Money • 1914 U.S. business in a worrisome recession • British and French war orders helped business • Germany U-boat blockade of Grt Brit (1915) • Tried not to sink neutral ships • Lusitaniasank, US passengers, 4200 cases of ammo • President’s Wilson’s Sussex ultimatum • Don’t sink passenger/merchant ships w/o warning • AKA = restricted submarine warfare • Germany accepts Sussex pledge • With a few differences

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  25. XIII. Wilson Wins Reelection in 1916 • Wilson renominated by Democrats • “He kept us out of the war” • Wilson never said we would not gol to war • Progressives nominated Theodore Roosevelt • T.R. refuses to run • Republicans nominated Tcharles Evans Hughes • Many wanted TR, ‘Old guard’ bitter about 1912 • Against lower tariff, trust attacks, Mexico & Germany • 1916 election results • Wilson wins 277 to 254 in the Electoral College • Wilson wins popular vote 9,127,695 to 8,533,507

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  27. voted for the Democraticincumbent, Woodrow Wilson, over the Republican nominee, Associate JusticeCharles Evans Hughes. Results[edit]

  28. Woodrow Wilson (D) Charles Hughes (R)

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  30. CH 23 - AN ERA OF SOCIAL CHANGE