The Art and Science of Itinerant Teaching John L. Luckner, Ed.D. Director, National Center on Low-Incidence Disabilities University of Northern Colorado
Get Ready – The Times They Are A-Changing a. Early Identification 44 states, plus the District of Columbia, have Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) laws or voluntary compliance programs that screen the hearing of more than 95% of newborns • American Speech - Language - Hearing Association.
b.Students with Cochlear Implants • Approximately 70,000 people worldwide have cochlear implants. • Approximately 25,000 people in the US have cochlear implants. • Nearly half of all cochlear implant recipients are children. • The demand for cochlear implants is increasing annually by 20%. • Approximately 250 hospitals perform CI’s in the US today. • Bilateral implantation for children in the US is in clinical trials currently – simultaneous and sequential. • Hearing Loss Association of America
c.Culturally and/or Linguistically Diverse Students During the next 50 years: • U.S. Hispanic population is projected to triple. • Asian population to double. • African American population to increase 70%. - U.S. Census Bureau (March, 2004).
Be Prepared – Return on Investment (ROI) is a Driving Force • Accountability • NCLB requires annual assessments, aligned with content and performance standards. • Assessment results made available to judge effectiveness. • Deaf Education Accountability Challenge Low Educational Outcomes • CADS, 1991; Traxler, 2000 Social Security Disability Benefits • United States = 46,921 deaf individuals • Minnesota = 862 deaf individuals
b. Evidence Based Practice (EBP) Evidence-based practice refers to an approach in which current, high-quality research evidence is integrated with professional expertise as well as student/family preferences and values into the process of making educational decisions. - Adapted from American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005).
Why Attend to Evidence-Based Practices? • NCLB (2001) requires educators to consider the results of relevant scientifically based research—whenever such information is available—in making instructional decisions. NCLB uses the term “Scientifically-Based Research” 111 times (Slavin, 2002). • It is a waste of money and time to use instructional procedures and/or materials that have not been demonstrated to be effective. • Increase the probability of success.
How Do We Evaluate the Quality of Evidence? Level 1 – Well-designed meta-analysis including well-designed randomized control studies. Level 2 – Well-designed controlled study without randomization and well-designed quasi-experimental study. Level 3 – Well designed non-experimental studies (i.e., correlational and case studies). Level 4 – Expert committee report, consensus conference, and experience of respected professionals. - Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine (2001)
Suggestions for EBP and the Field of Deaf Education • Know that the evidence in evidence-based practice may take many forms ranging from expert opinion to meta-analysis. • The field of deaf education has a paucity of research to plan evidence-based practice. • Ask the question, “Where is the evidence?” about the programs, products, practices, and policies used with students who are deaf or hard of hearing. • When evidence specific to students who are deaf or hard of hearing is not available, use the existing evidence from special education and general education. • Use resources such as the What Works Clearinghouse (http://www.w-w-c.org/), the Promising Practices Network (http://www.promisingpractices.net/), and the Deaf Education website (http://www.deafed.net/) to examine reviews of programs, products, practices, and policies. • Work with researchers in the field of deaf education to conduct research relevant to educational practice.
c. Emphasis on Literacy Deaf Education Literacy Outcomes Challenge • Average student D/HH graduates with 4th grade reading comprehension skills • Approximately 20% D/HH students graduate with 2nd grade or less reading comprehension skills
NCLID Examination of Literacy Research in the Field of Deaf Education • Examined 40 years of research on literacy in the field of deaf education. • Attempted to conduct a meta-analysis of the research
NCLID Review Process Criteria • Published in a peer review journal between 1963 and 2003. • Participants identified as students who are deaf or hard of hearing. • Sample consisted of children and youth between 3 and 21 years of age. • Studies included necessary statistical information for estimation of effect sizes. • Studies had a control group.
Reviewed 964 Articles: • 516 excluded - position papers, practitioner articles, literature reviews, curriculum development descriptions, or program descriptions. • 426 excluded – studies lacked control group, studies of teachers or families, qualitative studies, or studies that included individuals younger than 3 or older than 21. • 2 studies used same sample and control group - eliminated 1 • Studies examined = 21
Results • Majority of literature in deaf education - Level 4 of evidence • No replications of previously conducted studies • No two studies examined the same dimension of literacy • Unable to apply meta-analytic techniques
Large Effect Sizes – Evidence • Rehearsal • Explicit vocabulary instruction and practice with short passages • High interest literature • Instruction in the grammatical principles of ASL and how to translate ASL into written English • Teacher discussion of stories and reading comprehension strategy instruction • Interaction • Reading to young students
Large Effect Sizes – Evidence Continued • Use of captions • Intensified instruction • Use of word processing • Using simple stories and word recognition practice with young readers • Use of the general education curriculum • Direct instruction of sight words and teaching morphological rules
Valuable Literacy Resources: • http://www.fsdb.k12.fl.us/RMC/literacy/readingcomponents.html • http://nclid.unco.edu/newnclid/Category.php?showcat=3&blogid=2 • http://www.rit.edu/~seawww/
3. Advocate and Address the Needs of the Students You Serve a. Collect and Share Data – progress monitoring Colorado Individual Performance Profile http://www.google.com/u/ColoradoEd?q=CIPP&sa=Search
b. Examine Friendships, Extracurricular Participation and Community Involvement
c. Encourage the Development of Responsibility and Independence Responsibility Continuum Infant Child Adolescent Adult Dependent Independent Irresponsible Responsible
Questions to Consider: • Do I help students identify what they want to achieve in life? • Do I help students assess their present as well as previous performance capabilities? • Do I provide opportunities for students to check their progress regularly? • Do I help students to set personal goals that are attainable? • Do I encourage students to consider alternatives in problem solving and allow them to make their own decisions? • Do I allow students to experience the consequences of their actions? • Do I encourage students to work independently on projects of personal interest?
d. Promote Students’ Self-Determination and Teach Students Self-Advocacy Skills Examples of self-determination content: 1. Decision making/ problem solving. 2. Setting goals –short term and long-term. 3. Taking risks. 4. Assertive communication. 5. Self-evaluation skills. 6. Improving study habits. 7. Preparing for and taking tests. 8. Developing and fostering friendships. 9. Getting around the community. 10. Deaf studies. • Career awareness. • Post-secondary education options.
Examples of self-advocacy content: 1. Recognizing when he or she needs help. 2. Knowing when and how to request help. 3. Expressing needs effectively. 4. Conflict resolution. 5. Knowing appropriate accommodations and modifications. 6. Actively participating in setting, establishing, and discussing IEP and transition goals. 7. Understanding legal rights while in school, postsecondary education, or work. 8. Meeting with medical personnel and asking relevant questions. • Identifying and accessing local, state, regional and national resources.
4. Participate in Learning-Focused Relationships Learning-Focused Relationships - Interactions that provide support and help individuals increase their effectiveness. ADULT ADULT STUDENT
How? • Consult – to share information, procedures, advice, and technical resources. • Collaborate – to share decision making while working toward a common goal. • Coach – to guide, support and increase colleague’s self-direction.
How to Proceed? Engage in Learning-Focused Relationships with Professionals and Families • Identify Focus • Identify Key Individuals • Develop Relationship • Exchange Information • Apply to Focal Point
5. Advocate for and Address Your Needs • Maintain a balanced lifestyle – Learning how to let go of work and make time for self, family, and/or friends is essential. • Plan for success – Having meaningful goals and enjoying the process of reaching them helps reduce tension and fosters personal satisfaction. • Expand your support network – Positive, nurturing relationships and interactions are too important to be left up to incidental, happenstance events. Take time to get together and do things with others.
Your Needs Continued d. Create a positive belief system – Viewing the daily stresses that occur as result of interactions with students, families and colleagues as normal is one step in maintaining a positive attitude. e. Make learning a lifelong priority – We need to continually retool in order to maintain our personal and professional effectiveness.