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Fundamentals of Purity and Prayer

Fundamentals of Purity and Prayer

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Fundamentals of Purity and Prayer

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  1. Fundamentals of Purity and Prayer Lecture 14 May 11, 2014

  2. Congregational Prayer

  3. Congregational Prayer • The congregational prayer is worth 25 (or 27) times the reward of praying alone • For men, the congregational prayer is (at least) a sunnahmu’akkadah • The imam for a congregation of healthy men must be: • A sane, adult male • Able to recite Qur’an • Free from any chronic excuses • The follower must make intention to follow imam

  4. Congregational Prayer • The imam should be (in order): • The political ruler or judge • Established imam of masjid • Most learned in fiqh • Most learned in recitation of Qur’an • Most pious • Eldest • Most handsome • Most noble birth • Sweetest voice • If praying at someone’s home, master of house has the right over everyone else, unless he appoints someone

  5. Congregational Prayer • Makruh for the following to lead prayer: • A fasiq (open sinner) • A bida’ti (an innovator) • A slave • A blind man • A villager • An illegitimate child • Makruh for imam lengthen prayer such that it would be burdensome for the followers

  6. Congregational Prayer • If the congregation begins while one is individually praying the fard prayer • If in 1strak’at (before the sajdah), should say one salam to right while standing to exit prayer and join the congregation • If in 2ndrak’at of a 4 rak’at prayer, should quickly complete the set of 2 rak’at and join the congregation • If in 2ndrak’at of a 2 or 3 rak’at prayer, should say one salam to right while standing to exit prayer and join the congregation • If in 3rdrak’at of a 4 rak’at prayer, should say one salam to right while standing to exit prayer and join the congregation • If in 3rdrak’at of a 3 rak’at prayer, complete the prayer individually • If in 4thrak’at of a 4 rak’at prayer, should quickly complete the prayer and join the congregation with intention of nafl prayer • Except for Asr, as there is no nafl prayer after the Asr prayer

  7. Congregational Prayer • If one enters the masjid and finds the congregational prayer has already begun, one should not pray any sunnah or nafl and join the congregation • Except for 2 rak’atsunnah of Fajr, as long as one feels reasonably sure he will not miss the fard prayer in congregation • Should be prayed quickly off to the side • If fear of missing the fard prayer in congregation, should join the congregation • The follower must be praying the same prayer as the imam, or a prayer of a lower category

  8. Catching the Congregation • One who joins the imam after he has completed the 1struku will be considered a latecomer, and will have to make up whatever he has missed • One will be considered to have caught the imam as long as he performs the minimum bending of ruku before the imam begins to rise from ruku • When the imam sits for his final sitting, the latecomer will recite the tashahhudbut nothing more (i.e. no salawat, etc.) • When the imam starts his 2ndsalam, the latecomer will rise and complete his prayer

  9. Catching the Congregation • The latecomer will now be considered as praying alone while he is completing his prayer • With respect to his recitation, he prays as though he is starting the prayer from the beginning • With respect to his sitting, he prays as though he is continuing from where he left off with the imam • A latecomer cannot become an imam • If a latecomer is completing his own prayer and someone else joins his prayer, the follower’s prayer will be invalid

  10. Congregational Prayer • If the imam loses his wudu, he may appoint someone behind him to complete the prayer by gesturing • If the imam speaks, or leaves without appointing a successor, the prayer for all followers will break • If the imam’s prayer is nullified due to leaving a condition or pillar of the prayer, he will have to repeat his prayer • Must notify followers to repeat their prayer • Correcting the imam • Second congregational prayer in same masjid • Women’s congregational prayer

  11. Jumu’ah Prayer

  12. Jumu’ah Prayer • The Jumu’ah (Friday) prayer is an individual obligation (fard) for those meeting all these conditions: • Male • Free • Resident of a city or its outskirts • Sound health • Safety from any oppressor

  13. Jumu’ah Prayer • The following conditions must be met for the Jumu’ah prayer to be valid: • In a city or its outskirts • Support or approval of the ruler or his deputy • Does not apply for non-Muslim countries • Time of Dhuhr • Khutbah and prayer must be within time • Khutbah (sermon) must precede the prayer • At least 2 men must be present for the khutbah upon whom Jumu’ah is necessary (including khateeb) • At least 4 men must be present for the prayer upon whom Jumu’ah is necessary (including imam) • Accessibility/permission for all those who wish to attend

  14. Jumu’ah Prayer • The minimum obligation for a valid khutbah is one tasbih, tahlil or tahmid • Only doing this will be makruh • Sunnah to deliver two khutbahs while standing with a sitting in between • To begin both khutbahs with the praise of Allah, the two testimonies of faith, and sending blessing upon the Prophet ﷺ • To include at least one verse of Qur’an, and to advise others toward piety • Sunnah to be in state of ritual purity for khutbah • Khutbah should not be excessively long and slightly shorter than the prayer itself • The prayer itself is 2 rak’at, which takes the place of Dhuhr prayer for anyone who prays in the congregation • Imam recites out loud

  15. Jumu’ah Prayer • Wajib to hasten toward the Friday prayer after the 1stadhan has been called, leaving any sort of distraction • Makruh to leave town without performing Jumu’ah after the 1stadhan has been called • Once the imam stands to ascend the mimbar (pulpit) for the khutbah, one may not pray or speak until after the prayer • Everything that is prohibited during the prayer itself is prohibited during the khutbah; any speech is makruhtahrim • Including verbal dhikr, du’a, responding to du’a with “amin”, responding to salam, verbally sending salawat/durood, etc. • Disliked to eat, drink, fiddle around, or turn to and fro • One should listen attentively to the khutbah

  16. Jumu’ah • The sunnahs of the day of Jum’uah are: • Performing ghusl for the Jumu’ah prayer • Wearing scent • Using the miswak • Wearing one’s best clothing • Arriving early to the masjid • Reciting Surat Al-Kahf • Increasing one’s salawat on the Prophet ﷺ 

  17. ‘Īd Prayer

  18. ‘Īd Prayer • The two ‘Īd’s: ‘Īdal-Fitr (1st of Shawwal) and ‘Īd al-Adha(10th of Dhu ‘l-Hijjah) • The two ‘Īdprayers are wajib on the one for whom the Jumu’ah prayer is fard, with same conditions • Except for the khutbah, which is sunnah for ‘Īd • Time for the ‘Īd prayer begins after the sun has sufficiently risen and lasts until zawal (mid-day) • Better to pray earlier • The ‘Īdprayer must be performed in congregation • If one misses the ‘Īd prayer, cannot pray by himself

  19. ‘Īd Prayer • The ‘Īdprayer consists of 2 rak’at with 6 extra takbirs • Three takbirs given before the recitation of Qur’an in the 1strak’at • After reciting the thana’ • Three takbirs given after the recitation of Qur’an in the 2ndrak’at • Before going into ruku • For each of these six takbirs, the hands are raised as are during the TakbirTahrima, and then dropped to one’s side • Imam recites out loud • Sunnah to recite Surat al-’Ala and Surat al-Ghashiya

  20. ‘Īd Prayer • The ‘Īdkhutbah is sunnah to perform after the ‘Īd prayer • If the ‘Īdkhutbah is delivered, wajib to listen attentively • Everything disliked/prohibited during the Jumu’ahkhutbah also applies for the ‘Īdkhutbah • The khutbah is delivered similarly to the Jumu’ahkhutbah • For ‘Īd al-Fitr, the imam should include teaching the rules regarding the Sadaqat al-Fitr • For ‘Īd al-Adha, the imam should include teaching the rules of the sacrifice and the TakbirTashriq

  21. ‘Īd Prayer • Makruh to perform any nafl prayer before the ‘Īdprayer at home or at the ‘Īd grounds • Makruh to perform nalf prayer after the ‘Īd prayer at the ‘Īd grounds • The prayer for ‘Īd al-Fitr can be delayed for one day with valid excuse • Ex. Heavy rain, security issues, etc. • If delayed without valid excuse, prayer is invalid • The prayer for ‘Īd al-Adha can be delayed for three days with valid excuse • If delayed without valid excuse, prayer is makruh but still valid

  22. Sunnahs of ‘Īd • The sunnahs of ‘Īdare: • Keep the night of ‘Īd alive with worship • Eat an odd number of dates or something else sweet • For ‘Īd al-Fitr, sunnah to eat before the prayer • For ‘Īd al-Adha, sunnah to eat after the prayer • Perform ghusl,, apply scent, use the miswak • Wear one’s finest clothes • To pay the Sadaqat ‘l-Fitr before going for the prayer • For ‘Īd al-Fitr only • To walk toward the ‘Īd grounds • To recite the takbirs of ‘Īd on the way until before the ‘Īd prayer • For ‘Īd al-Fitr, sunnah to recite silently • For ‘Īd al-Adha, sunnah to recite out loud • To return home from the prayer by a different route

  23. TakbirTashriq • Wajib to recite the TakbirTashriq after every fard prayer beginning from Fajr of 9thDhu’l-Hijjah until Asr of 13th Dhu’l-Hijjah • Total of 23 prayers • Must be recited once immediately after every fard prayer • Including Jumu’ah prayer • Must be recited by everyone, male or female, whether praying in congregation or by oneself • Women should recite silently

  24. Questions?