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Conservative Reactions to Revolution

Conservative Reactions to Revolution

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Conservative Reactions to Revolution

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  1. Conservative Reactions to Revolution • Military Coups followed and encouraged by the Alliance for Progress and increased conservatism of the United States • U.S. often accused of helping the military over throw elected governments • New governments emphasized economic development over social justice and used military and police to enforce compliance

  2. Military Coups 1962-1989

  3. Latin American Democracies 1977-85

  4. Revolution and Reaction in Central America • Historical Factors • Impact of the Alliance for Progress in Central America • Economic Crises in the 70s and 80 • Contemporary Factors • External Factors • Neoliberalism and Central America

  5. Historical Factors • Panama Canal and presence of US military zone • Agusto Sandino of Nicaragua • Opposed U.S. occupation of Nicaragua—US marines first landed in 1912 • Became active opponent in 1926—was a military officer who refused to accept US presence and after 1933 fought marines as guerrilla-killed by Anastasio “Tacho” Somoza forces in 1936

  6. Agusto César Sandino

  7. La Matanza, El Salvador • Occurred in 1932 when prices for coffee collapsed • Agusto Farabundo Martí came from a wealthy landowning family, was introduced to Marxist thought at the U. of El Salvador, and became a member of the socialist party that supported impoverished workers • Tried to organize a rebellion with the help of the communist party

  8. Agustino Farabundo Martí

  9. Protests over US ownership of Panama Canal • 1903 treaty with Panama allowed U.S. to operate the canal with complete sovereignty along with 10 mile stretch of land • In return US paid $10 million dollars and an annual payment of $250,000 • Over the years protests led to an increase in the annual payments paid to Panama until 1979 when the Carter government promised to divest itself of the canal and the property over a 20 year period, although the US obtained certain rights • Source of anger among Central Americans along with the embargo on Cuba

  10. US Interventions in Guatemala and Honduras • In 1954 U.S. supported a general who overthrew the Jacobo Arbenz government • Reversed land reform laws and protected US agricultural interests in the name of anti-Communism • Led to the rise of guerrilla groups with the US supporting military governments • These military leaders, particularly in the 1970s under General Ríos Montt, massacred many indigenous communities and took over their land • US history in Honduras characterized by intervention and support of the military

  11. Consequences of the Alliance for Progress • One consequence of the Alliance for Progress was the rise of military governments in Latin America in the 1960s and 70s • US hostility toward leftist groups

  12. Economic and Political Crises in the 1970s and 80s • Earthquake in Nicaragua 1972—destroyed capital city of Managua, devastated country • Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza Debayle took advantage of situation to enrich himself • Led to widespread opposition from democratic as well as leftist groups—called themselves Sandinistas • Took power 1979 and opposed by US • US government illegally funded opposition known as “CONTRAS” who won elections in 1990

  13. El Salvador • Unlike Nicaragua, El Salvador dominated by elite families tied to the military • In 1980s revolutionary movement organized to overthrow elites, but difficult to build a cross party movement against one specific target • US opposed leftists in El Salvador, and supported extreme right wing leaders • Civil War continued until peace accords in 1990. Impact of the left disappeared.

  14. How does Political Instability Lead to Anti-Semitism in the 1980s? • Political Relations between Israel and specific Latin American countries e.g. Nicaragua • Israel had always sold arms to the Somoza family, and Somoza had earlier helped smuggle weapons into Israel before 1948 • Israel also sold arms to traditional and military governments in El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala when US policy restricted such military sales • This reality led Latin American countries to divide over the support of Israel over Palestine, and associated Israel with the support of dictators

  15. Cuba and Israel • Initially Castro’s Cuba supported Israel and traded with it. • Came into conflict with Israel over its relations to the Non-Aligned Third World Movement which strongly supported the Palestinians. • Some countries began to break away from Israel over the 6 Day War

  16. Six Day War • Took place during June of 1967 when Israel began to attack the air force of Egypt to end efforts of Arabs to occupy Israel and began the occupation of the West Bank • Caused great loss of life among Israelis—more than the US suffered during the Viet-Nam War • Began era of great debates about the future of Israel and the Palestinians

  17. Non-Aligned Movement • Became very influential in Latin America in 1970s • Consisted of 118 developing nations that attempted to establish independence from the control of Russia and the U.S. • Its significance lasted until 1979 and the Russian invasion of Afghanistan • Impacted Anti-Semitism in some, but not all, countries of Latin America

  18. Members of the Non-Aligned Nations