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Marine Life

Marine Life

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Marine Life

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  1. Marine Life

  2. Classification of living organisms • Three domains of Life • Archaea • Bacteria • Eukarya • Eukaryotic cells with nucleus and membrane: • Includes Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals

  3. Domain Eukarya • Protists: • Algae • Photosynthetic • Can be unicellular, colonial, or multicellular • Multicellular - “seaweed” – kelp • Unicellular – phytoplankton, produce large amounts of oxygen

  4. Domain Eukarya • Plants • Autotrophic, multicellular • Very few species grow in/near ocean • Sea grasses • Mangroves

  5. Domain Eukarya • Animals • Heterotrophic, multicellular, have motility at some point in life cycle • Wide variety • From simplest of animals (sponges) to most complex (mammals)

  6. Taxonomic classification • Systemized classification of organisms • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species • Fundamental unit • Population of genetically similar, interbreeding individuals

  7. Kingdom Plantae • Nonvascular Plants – mosses • Vascular Plants • Seedless Vascular Plants (Spores) – ferns • Seed Vascular Plants • Gymnosperms – “naked” seeds, Spruce Trees • Angiosperms – flowering plants (mangroves and sea grasses, etc.)

  8. Kingdom Animalia • Parazoa – no true tissues • Sponges • Eumetazoa – true tissues • 2 true tissues – simple, no organs; jelly fish, coral • 3 true tissues –all other animals, more complex

  9. Invertebrates are animals that lack a backbone Examples: jellyfish, sponges, corals, crabs Spineless creatures Classification Overview Common Invertebrates Kingdom Animalia Phlyum Porifera Cnidaria Mollusca Arthropoda Echinodermata

  10. Phylum Porifera- Sponge-cells perform all life process without tissue or organs-only contains 2 layers of cells • Phylum: Porifera • Simple heterotrophs with two cell types: • Collar cells have flagella and draw water into the sponge’s central cavity (diagram right) • Epithelial cells line the sponge’s outer surface • Reproduce asexually by budding or sexually by release of sex cells (gametes) into the water • Filter feeders: feed by filtering suspended materials out of water The yellow tube sponge, purple vase sponge, red encrusting sponge and gray rope sponge Photo: NOAA Flagellum Collar cell

  11. Phylum Cnidaria: Jellyfish and Coral-Tissue, no organs- • Cnidarians include corals, anemones, sea fans, and jellyfish • Cnidarian characteristics: • Radial symmetry – they are symmetrical around a single point, like a clock • Two tissue layers separated by a jelly layer (mesoglea) • Nematocysts – structures on their tentacles that have stinging toxins This purple striped jellyfish (Pelagiapanopyra) has a potent sting Photo: NOAA Cnidarian Taxonomy Some Common Classes Kingdom Animalia Phylum Cnidaria Classes Anthozoa – anemones, Corals Scyphozoa – jellyfish Hydrozoa – fire corals, Portuguese Man-of-War

  12. Some special Cnidarian species profiles Fire coral Class: Hydrozoa Order: Capitata These are in a different class than typical hard corals - you will get a mild burn if you touch them! Portuguese Man-of-War Class: Hydrozoa Order: Siphonophora These are i a different class than jellyfish, they are colonies – specialized polyps Photo: NOAA Photo: NOAA

  13. Phylum Mollusca: Three defining traits • Mollusks include oysters, clams, mussels, conchs, snails, sea slugs, squid and octopuses • Most mollusks have three traits • Mantle: a muscular bag surrounding the gills and other organs for circulation • A muscular foot for movement • A radula: a rough scraping appendage for feeding or protection Mollusca Taxonomy Some Common Classes Kingdom Animalia Phylum Mollusca

  14. Some mollusks Photos: NOAA Foot Spiny oyster Class: Bivalvia Bivalves have two shells and no typical “head” like other mollusks Octopus Class: Cephalopoda The foot of the octopus is divided intoeight arms.

  15. Phylum Athropoda: Superclass/Subphylum Crustacea • Arthropods are land and sea “bugs” • Crustaceans include shrimps, crabs, lobsters, copepods and barnacles • About 1 million species exist • Crustacean characteristics: • Two pairs of antennae • Mandibles for chewing • Hard exoskeleton • Jointed legs Crustacean Taxonomy Some Common Classes Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea

  16. Some common crustaceans Photos: NOAA Rock lobster Sub-phylumCrustacea Class Malacostraca Order Decapoda Copepod Sub-phylumClass Crustacea Copepoda Order Harpacticoida

  17. Phylum Echinodermata: The ocean’s stars • Include sea stars (starfish), sea urchins, sand dollars • Most echinoderms have these traits: • Tube feet for motion • 5 part radical symmetry Echinoderm Taxonomy Some Common Classes Kingdom Animalia Phylum Echinodermata

  18. Some Echinoderms Sea urchin Phylum Class EchinodermataEchinoidea Source: NOAA Sunflower star PhylumEchinodermata Class Asteroidea Order Forcipulatida

  19. Phylum- Chordata • Characteristics: dorsal hollow nerve cord, post-anal tail, pharyngeal gill slits = Vertebrates • Superclass Gnathostoma – jaws • Class Chondrichthyes • Class Osteichthyes • Class Mammalia

  20. Vertebrates • Class Chondrichthyes • Cartilage Skeleton (Not bones) • Sharks, rays

  21. Vertebrates • Class Osteichthyes • Bony fish, ray-finned fish • Great diversity in the ocean! • Large tuna, grouper, sailfish • Flounder • Seahorses • Eels

  22. Vertebrates • Class Mammalia • Hair and mammary glands • Sea otters, pinnepeds (walruses, seals, sea lions), manatees, whales

  23. Classification in the marine environment by habitat and mobility • Plankton (floaters) • Nekton (swimmers) • Benthos (bottom dwellers)

  24. http://i.ehow.com/images/GlobalPhoto/Articles/2110315/icephytoplankton-main_Full.jpghttp://i.ehow.com/images/GlobalPhoto/Articles/2110315/icephytoplankton-main_Full.jpg Plankton • Most biomass on Earth consists of plankton • Phytoplankton • Microscopic algae, Autotrophic • Zooplankton • Heterotrophic • Protozoans, tiny animals, larvae of larger animals • Bacterioplankton • Virioplankton • Viruses that infect bacteria and eukaryotic cells

  25. Nekton • Independent swimmers • Most adult fish and squid • Marine reptiles • Marine mammals

  26. Benthos • Epifauna live on surface of sea floor • Infauna live buried in sediments • Nektobenthos swim or crawl through water above seafloor • Most abundant in shallower water

  27. Main divisions of the marine environment • Pelagic (open sea) • Neritic (< 200 m) and oceanic • Benthic (sea floor) • Subneritic and suboceanic • Another classification scheme: • Euphotic • Disphotic • Aphotic

  28. Pelagic environments – Open ocean: Vertical • Epipelagic • Mesopelagic • Bathypelagic • Abyssopelagic Fig. 12.19

  29. Benthic (Ocean Floor) environments – Horizontal • Supralittoral • Transition from land to seafloor • Subneritic(under neritic) • Littoral (intertidal zone) • Sublittoral(shallow tidal zone to 200m) • Suboceanic • Bathyal(200-4,000m) • Abyssal (4000-6000m) • Hadal(below 6000m) Fig. 12.19