Class 1~3: Herbs and Formulas that Regulate Qi Xianhui Li and Cui Han
Herbs • *Pericarpium Citri reticulatae (Chen pi) • Pericarpium Citri reticulatae viride (Qing pi) • Pericarpium Arecae catechu (Da fu pi) • *Fructus Aurantii immaturus (Zhi shi) • *Fr Citri Aurantii (Zhi ke) • *Rhizoma Cyperi (Xiang fu) • *Radix Aucklandiae seu Vladimiriae (Mu xiang) • Radix Linderae (Wu yao) • Lignum Aquilariae resinatum (Chen xiang) • Lignum Santati albi (Tan xiang) • Bulbus Allii macrostemi (Xie bai) • Fructus Citri sarcodactylis (Fo shou) • Flos Rosae rugosae (Mei gui hua) • Fructus Melia Toosedan (Chuan lian zi) • Calyx kaki (Shi di)
Ju Pi (Chen Pi, tangerine peel, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae) • Taste and Property: Pungent, bitter and warm • Meridian Tropism: Spleen and lung • Actions: Regulate flow of qi, harmonize function of the middle jiao, dry dampness and dissolve phlegm • Application : • Stagnation of qi in the spleen and stomach marked by fullness in the abdomen and epigastrium, eructation, vomiting or nausea • Fullness and pain in the epigastrium or abdomen, often used with Zhi Ke and Mu Xiang • Nausea or vomiting: Used with Sheng Jiang, i.e. Ju Pi Tang • Vomiting with phlegm heat manifestations: Used with Zhu Ru and Huang Lian • Abdominal pain and diarrhea due to liver qi attacking the spleen: Used with Bai Zhu, Bai Shao and Fang Fengm i.e. Tong Xie Yao Fang • Indigestion due to deficiency of the spleen qi, used with Dang Shen, Bai Zhu and Zhi Gan Cao, i.e. Yi Gong Sang • Dampness obstructing in the middle jiao marked by stuffiness in the chest and abdominal fullness, poor appetite, lassitude, loose stool, thick tongue coating, also for cough, profuse sputum. • For the former, it is used with Cang Zhu and Hou Po, i.e. Ping Wei San. • For the latter, used with Ban Xia and Fu Ling, i.e. Er Chen Tang • Dosage: 3-10g
Qing Pi (Green tangerine orange peel, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Immaturus) • Taste and Property: Bitter, pungent taste and warm in nature • Meridian tropism: Liver, gallbladder and stomach • Actions: Dredge flow of liver qi, break qi, dissipate nodules and remove retained food • Application: • Distending pain in the hypochondrium and breasts, pain in the hernia caused by stagnation of the liver qi. For hypochondriac pain, used together with Chai Hu and Yu Jin. For distending pain in the breast, used with Chai Hu, Xiang Fu. For acute mastitis, used with Gua Lou, Jin Yin Hua, Pu Gong Ying. For Abdominal pain in the abdomen, used with Xiao Hui Xiang, Wu Yao and Mu Xiang, i.e. Tian Tai Wu yao San • Indigestion marked by fullness and distending pain in the epigastrium, often used with Shan Zha, Mai Ya and Shen Qu, i.e. Qing Pi Wan • Abdominal mass caused by stagnation of both qi and blood, used with Sang Leng, E Zhu and Yu Jin • Elevate blood pressure • Dosage: 3-10g
Da fu pi (Pericarpium Arecae catechu ) • Taste and Property: acrid, slight warm • Meridian tropism: Large intestine, small intestine, spleen • Actions: directs qi downward, disperses formless qi obstruction, reduces edema • Application: • For patterns of dampness or other processes obstructing the middle and leading to qi stagnation with such signs as epigastric and abdominal distention, focal distention and stifling sensation, and belching with acid regurgitation, used with chen pi, hou po • For abdominal distention accompanied by edema, used with fu ling pi, sheng jiang pi, i.e. wu pi yin • Dosage: 4.5~9g • Cautions & conintradications: used with caution during pregnancy
Zhi shi (Immature Bitter orange ) • Taste and Property: Bitter, pungent and slightly cold • Meridian Tropism: Spleen, stomach and the large intestine • Actions: Break stagnated qi to remove retained food, dissolve phlegm to relieve the obstruction • Applications: • Retention of food marked by abdominal pain and constipation or unsmooth discharge of stool and trismus in diarrhea or dysentery Used with Shan Zha, Mai Ya and Gu Ya for fullness in the epigastrium and abdomen marked by eructation and foul breath • Constipation due to accumulation of heat: Used with Hou Po and Da Huang • Weakness of the spleen and stomach marked by fullness after eating: Used with Bai Zhu, i.e. Zhi Zhu Wan • Diarrhea due to stagnation of damp heat: Used with Da Huang, Huang Lian and Huang Qin, i.e. Zhi Shi Dao Zhi San • Distension and fullness in the chest and epigastrium due to obstruction of qi by phlegm • CHD with fullness in the epigastrium: Used with Xie Bai, Gui Zhi and Gua Lou, i.e. Zhi Shi Xie Bai Gui Zhi Tang • Fullness and distension in the epigastrium marked by poor appetite and listlessness: Used with Hou Po, Ban Xia and Shen Qu, i.e. Zhi Shi Xiao Shi Wan • Fever with epigastriac fullness: Used with Zhi Zi and Dou Chi, ie. Zhi Zi Chi Tang • Used for prolapse of stomach, uterus, and rectun • Elevating blood pressure • Dosage: 3-10g • Attention: Used with great care for weakness of the spleen and the stomach and pregnant woman
Zhi Ke (Bitter orange ) • Taste and Property: Bitter, pungent and slightly cold • Meridian Tropism: Spleen, stomach and the large intestine • Actions: Break stagnated qi to remove retained food, dissolve phlegm to relieve the obstruction • Applications: • Promotes the flow of qi, for qi stagnation leading to problems in the flow of qi such as cough, distention or constipation • Used with gui zhi, for stabbing pain in the chest and flank • Used with jie geng t oregulate the flow of qi in the chest an aid in the transforming of phlegm • Used with sheng ma to relax the bowels and encourage the downward flow of turbid yin, i.e. ji chuan jian • Dosage: 3-10g • Attention:Used with great care for weakness of the spleen and the stomach and pregnant woman
Xiang Fu (Nutgrass flatsedge rhizome, Rhizoma Cyperi) • Taste and Property: Pungent, slightly bitter and slightly sweet • Meridian Tropism: Liver and triple jiao • Actions: Dredge flow of the liver qi, regulate menstruation to relieve pain • Application: • Stagnation of the Liver Qi: • Hypochondric pain: Used with Chai Hu, Bai Shao and Zhi Ke • Attack of liver qi on the stomach: Used with Mu Xiang • Stomach ache due to stagnation of cold and qi: Used with Gao Liang Jiang, i.e. Liang Fu Wan • Abdominal pain due to cold: Used with Xiao Hui Xiang and Wu Yao • Irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea or distending pain in the breasts: • Xiang Fu is a commonly used herb in treatment of gynecologic diseases, especially the diseases caused by stagnation of the liver qi such as irregular menstruation accompanied with distension in the breast and abdomen, often used together with Dang Guim Chuan Xiong, Bai Shao and Chai Hu • Dosage: 6-12g
Mu Xiang (Aucklandia root, Radix Aucklandiae) • Taste and property: Pungent, bitter and warm • Meridian Tropism: Spleen, stomach, large intestine and gallbladder • Actions: Promotes flow of qi, regulates function of the middle jiao and relieves pain • Applications: • Stagnation of qi in the spleen and stomach marked by poor appetite, indigestion, fullness in the epigastrium and abdomen, borborygmus, diarrhea • Distending pain due to qi stagnation in the epigastrium and abdomen: Used with Zhi Ke, Chuan Lian Zi and Yan Hu Suo • Diarrhea due to damp heat: Used with Huang Lian • Failure of the liver to dredge flow of qi due to inability of the spleen to transform and transport marked by distending pain in the hypochondrium, bitter taste in the mouth, yellow coating or even jaundice, often used with Chai Hu, Yu Jin and Zhi Ke, and Da Huang, Yin Chen and Jin Qian Cao • Deficiency of both the spleen qi and the stomach qi: Used with Dang Shen, Bai Zhu and Sha Ren, i.e. Xiang Sha Liu Jun Zi Tang • Dosage: 3-10g. Used raw for promote flow of qi and baked for diarrhea
Wu Yao (Lindera Root, Radix Linderae) • Taste and Property: Pungent and warm • Meridian Tropism: Lung, Kidney, spleen and bladder • Actions: Promote flow of qi to relieve pain and warm up the kidney to disperse cold • Application: • Stagnation of cold and qi marked by chest stuffiness, hypochondriac pain, abdominal pain and dysmenorrhea: This herb can promote flow of qi and disperse cold to relieve pain • Chest stuffiness and hypochondriac pain: Used with Xie Bai, Gua Lou, Yu Jin • Distending pain in the peigastrium and abdomenL Used with Mu Xiang, Wu Zhu Yu and Zhi Ke • Hernia with pain in the lower abdomen: Used with Xiao Hui Xiang, Mu Xiang and Qing Pi, i.e. Tian Tai Wu Yao San • Abdominal pain in menstruation: Used with Xiang Fu, Dang Gui and Mu Xiang: Wu Yao Tang • Kidney yang deficiency caused by frequent urination and dripping of urine: Used with Yi Zhi Ren and Shan yao, i.e. Suo Quan Wan • Dosage: 3-10g
Lignum Aquilariae resinatum (Chen xiang) • Taste and Property: acrid, bitter, warm, aromatic • Meridian Tropism: Kidney, spleen and stomach • Actions: promotes the movement of qi and alleviates pain, directs rebellious qi downward and regulate middle jiao, assists the kidneys in grasping the qi • Application: • For stagnant qi patterns with such symptoms as distention, pain, or a feeling of pressure in the epigastric or abdominal region, used with wu yao, i.e. liu mo tang, used with xiao hui xiang, wu yao, nuan gan jian • For rebellious qi wheezing of either the excessive or deficient type, or vomiting, belching, or hiccough due to cold from deficiency of the stomach or spleen, use with zi su ye, bai bian dou • For asthma and wheezing due to kidney deficiency, used with bu gu zhi, fu zi, zi su zi, hou po, qian hu • Dosage: 1~1.5g, if used in decoctions, it should be added near the end
Lignum Santati albi (Tan xiang) • Taste and Property: acrid, warm, aromatic • Meridian Tropism: Lung, spleen and stomach • Actions: promotes the movement of qi and regulate middle jiao, dispels cold and alleviates pain • Application: • For pain associated with stagnant qi due to cold in the chest and abdomen • Recently used in the treatment of coronary artery disease, for qi stagnation and blood stasis pattern, used with dan shen, sha ren, i.e. dan shen yin, used with mu xiang, ding xiang, i.e. su he xiang wan • Dosage: 2~5g • Cautions & conintradications: can not use when there is fire or significant yin deficiency
Bulbus Allii macrostemi (Xie bai) • Taste and Property: acrid, warm, bitter • Meridian Tropism: Lung, large intestine and stomach • Actions: unblocks the yang qi and disperses turbid phlegm, directs the qi downward and reduces stagnation • Application: • For cold-damp painful obstruction of the chest due to cold, turbid phlegm congealing and stagnating in the chest where it prevents the dissemination and flow of yang qi: chest, flanlk, or upper back pain, dyspnea, cough, wheezing, and a stifling sensation in the chest, i.e. gua lou xie bai ban xia tang • For damp stagnation in the large intestine associated with dysenteric disorder, used with chai hu, bai shao for dysenteric diarrhea due to qi stagnation, used with qin pi, huang bai for red-and-white dysenteric disorders. • Dosage: 5~9g • Cautions & conintradications: inappropriate for those with qi deficiency and no significant qi stagnation, weak stomach
Fructus Citri sarcodactylis (Fo shou) • Taste and Property: acrid, warm, bitter • Meridian Tropism: Lung, liver, spleen and stomach • Actions: spreads and regulates the liver qi, harmonizes the stomach and strengthens the spleen, transforms phlegm and stops cough • Application: • For liver qi constraint leading to chest or hypochondrial pain or a stifling sensation in the chest, this herb strongly promotes the movement of qi, but its ability to alleviate pain is weak, used with xiang fu, yu jin to soother liver • For spleen and stomach qi stagnation with epigastric pain, fullness and distention, lack of appetite, belching or vomiting, used with mu xiang, zhi ke, qing pi • For subacute or chronic cough with copious phlegm, used with pi pa ye and si gua luo. • Dosage: 3~9g • Cautions & conintradications: used with caution in those with yin deficiency with fire
Flos Rosae rugosae (Mei gui hua) • Taste and Property: sweet, warm, slightly bitter • Meridian Tropism: Liver and spleen • Actions: promotes the movement of qi and relieves constraint, harmonizes the blood and disperses stasis • Application: • For liver stomach disharmony with such symptoms as a stifling sensation in the chest, pain and distention in the flanks and epigastrium, belching and poor appetite, used with fo shou and yu jin • For irregular menstruation, premenstrual breast tenderness, and menstrual pain due to blood stasis, used with dang gui, ze lan for irregular menstruation, used with yi mu cao for mild menorrhagia, also for blood stasis due to trauma, used with ji xue teng and yan hu suo for pain due to blood stasis secondary to trauma • Dosage: 1.5~6g
Fructus Melia Toosedan (Chuan lian zi) • Taste and Property: bitter, cold, slightly toxic • Meridian Tropism: bladder, liver, small intestine, stomach • Actions: promotes the movement of liver qi, relieves constraint, conducts heat out from below, kills parasites and stop pains • Application: • For a variety of symptoms from liver constraint, including pain in the chest and ribs, distention and pain from liver/stomach disharmony, and bulging disorders, used with yan hu suo (jin ling zi san) for intermittent epigastric and hypochondriac pain, pain from bulging disorders, used with gou qi zi, sheng di huang (yi guan jian) for liver and kidney yin deficiency with liver qi stagnation • Kills parasites and stops pain, used with bing lang and lei wan for the pain associated with intestinal parasites • Also used for topically in powder form for dermatosis of the scalp • Dosage: 4.5~9g • Cautions & conintradications: used with caution in those with cold from deficiency of the spleen and stomach
Calyx kaki (Shi di) • Taste and Property: bitter, astringent, neutral • Meridian Tropism: Lung and stomach • Actions: directs the qi downward and stops hiccough • Application: • For belching or hiccough due to stomach dysfunction, use in treating both hot and cold patterns, depending on the other herbs with which it is combined, used with ding xiang, sheng jiang for hiccough and vomiting due to stomach cold, i.e. shi di tang, used with zhu ru, lu gen for belching and vomiting due to stomach heat • Dosage: 3~12g
Formulas • Formulas that promote the movement of qi: • *Escape Restraint Pill (yue ju wan) • Pinellia and Magnolia Bark Decoction (ban xia hou po tang) • Trichosanthes Fruit, Chinese Chive, and Wine Decoction (gua lou xie bai bai jiu tang) • Galangal and Cyperus Pill (liang fu wan) • Melia Toosendan Powder (jin ling zi san) • Top-quality Lindera Powder (tian tai wu yao san) • Formulas that direct rebellious qi downward • Perilla Fruit Decoction for Directing Qi Downward (su zi jiang qi tang) • Arrest Wheezing Decoction (ding chuan tang) • Four Milled-Herb Decoction (si mo tang) • Inula and Hematite Decoction (xuan fu dai zhe tang) • Tangerine Peel and Bamboo Shavings Decoction (ju pi zhu ru tang) • Clove and Persimmon Calyx Decoction (ding xiang shi di tang)
Escape Restraint Pill (yue ju wan) Ingredients: Cang zhu, chuan xiong, xiang fu, shan zhi zi, shen qu
Actions and indications of the formula • Actions • Promotes the movement of qi and releases constraint • Indications • Focal distention and a stifling sensation in the chest and abdomen, fixed pain in the hypochondria, belching, vomiting, acid regurgitation, mild coughing with copious sputum, reduced appetite and indigestion.
Analysis of Formula • Chief: Xiang fu • Releases the constraint and disperses qi stagnation. • Deputy: chuan xiong, cang zhu, shan zhi zi, shen qu • Chuan xiong: releases constrained blood and resolves the fixed pain • Cang zhu: dries dampness and phlegm, releases the constraint of dampness and phlegm and addresses the symptoms of focal distention of the chest and copious sputum • Shan zhi zi: clear heat from the three burners and resolves the fire from constraint • Shen qu: relieves constraint caused by food stagnation and harmonizes the stomach
Pinellia and Magnolia Bark Decoction (ban xia hou po tang) Ingredients: ban xia, hou po, fu ling, sheng jiang, zi su ye
Actions and indications of the formula • Actions • Promotes the movement of qi, dissipates clumps, directs rebellious qi downward, and transforms phlegm • Indications • A feeling of something caught in the throat that can neither be swallowed nor ejected (plum-pit qi), a stifling sensation in the chest and hypochondria, a moist or greasy, white tongue coating, and a wiry, slow or wiry, slippery pulse. There may also be coughing and vomiting.
Analysis of Formula • Chief: ban xia • Transforms phlegm, dissipates clumps, directs rebellious qi downward, and harmonizes stomach. • Deputy: hou po, fu ling • Hou po: eliminates the stifling, sensation and assists the chief herb in dissipating the clumps and directing the rebellious qi downward, reinforcing the main strategy of the formula • Fu ling: leach out dampness and assists the chief herb in transforming phlegm • Assistant: sheng jiang, • Helps the chief herbs to harmonize the stomach and thereby to stop vomiting • Envoy: zi su ye • Helps focus the action of formula on the lung channel, and relieves cough
Modifications • Modifications: • For severe cases of stagnant qi, add chai hu, yu jin, xiang fu, qing pi • For vomiting: add sha ren, bai dou kou, ding xiang • For chest pain: gua lou, xie bai • For hypochondriac pain, add chuan lian zi, yan hu suo • Cautions & contraindictions: • Yin deficiency
Liang Fu Wan (Galangal and Cyperus Pill) Ingredients: Xiang fu, Gao liang jiang
Actions and indications of the formula • Actions • Warm the middle jiao, Dispel cold, Promote the movement of qi and relieve pain • Indications • Epigastric pain that responds favorably to warmth, a stifling sensation in the chest, hypochondriac pain, painful menstruation and a white tongue coating.
Analysis of Formula • Gao liang jiang: warm the stomach, disperse cold • Xaing fu: release the constraint and disperse qi stagnation
Modern application and attention • Modern application • Chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer • Attention • Contraindicated in cases with heat in the liver and stomach, or where there is bleeding.
Gua lou xie bai bai jiu tang (Trichosanthes Fruit, Chinese Chive, and Wine Decoction ) Ingredients: gua lou, xie bai, bai jiu
Actions and indications of the formula • Actions • Unblocks the yang, promotes the movement of qi, and expels phlegm • Indications • Pain in the chest which often radiates to the upper back, wheezing, cough with copious sputum, shortness of breath, a thick, greasy tongue coating, and a pulse that is either submerged and wiry or tight
Analysis of Formula • Chief: gua lou • Expels phlegm and unbinds the chest. It is particularly useful in dispersing clumps of phlegm in the chest. • Deputy: xie bai • Warms and unblocks the yang, promotes the movement of qi, and alleviates pain. • Assistant: bai jiu • Its ascending nature enhances the therapeutic actions of xie bai and encourages the uninhibited flow of yang
Modern application and attention • Modern application • Esophageal spasms, angina pectoris, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, intercostal neuralgia, costochondritis, and hyperventilation disorders • Attention • Not be used for cases of chest pain due to lung consumption or phlegm-heat, nor should it be used long-term .
Jin ling zi san (Melia toosendan powder) Ingredients: Chuan lian zi Yan hu suo
Actions and indications of the formula • Actions • Spread liver qi, drain heat, and alleviate pain • Indications • Intermittent epigastric and hypochondriac pain, hernial pain, a red tongue with a yellow coating, and a wiry or rapid pulse
Analysis of Formula • Chief: Chuan lian zi • clear heat and promote the movement of qi. It thereby drain heat from the qi level and alleviate pain . • Deputy: Yan hu suo • relieve pain by simultaneously promoting the movement of qi and invigorating blood.
Modern application and attention • Modern application • Peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, hepatitis, and cholecystitis • Attention • Use with caution during pregnancy.
Top-quality Lindera Powder (tian tai wu yao san) Ingredients: wu yao, mu xiang, xiao hui xiang, qing pi, gao liang jiang, bing lang, chuan lian zi, ba dou
Actions and indications of the formula • Actions • Promotes the movement of qi, spreads liver qi, scatters cold, and alleviates pain • Indications • Hernia disorders due to stagnation of qi and cold: lower abdominal pain radiating to the testicles, a plae tongue with a white coating, and either a submerged and slow or a wiry pulse
Analysis of Formula • Chief: wu yao • Promotes the movement of qi, disperses the constrained liver qi, scatters the cold and thereby alleviates pain • Deputy: xiao hui xiang, gao liang jiang, qing pi, mu xiang • Xiao hui xiang: warms the lower burner and scatters cold • Gao liang jiang: scatters cold and alleviates pain • Qing pi: regulates the qi and disperses constrained liver qi • Mu xiang: promotes the movement of qi and alleviates pain • Assistant: bing lang, jin ling zi, ba dou • Bing lang: conducts the qi downward, removing stagnation and breaking up solid obstructions in the lower burner • Jin ling zi, dry-fry with ba dou: reduces bitter and cold properties and strengthens the ability to soothe the liver
Modifications • Modifications • to enhance the overall effect of this formula, add ju he, li zhi he • For severe cold, add wu zhu yu and rou gui • For blood stasis, add tao ren and hong hua
Perilla Fruit Decoction for Directing Qi Downward (su zi jiang qi tang) Ingredients: Su zi 9-12g, Ban xia 6-9g, Dang gui 6-9g, Gan cao 3-4.5g, Hou po 3-6g, Qian hu 6-9g, Rou gui 1.5-3g
Actions and indications of the formula • Actions • Direct rebellious qi downward, arrest wheezing, stop coughing and warm and transform phlegm-cold • Indications • Coughing and wheezing with watery, copious sputum, a stifling sensation in the chest and diaphragm, and a white sticky tongue coating.
Analysis of Formula • Chief: su zi • Direct rebellious qi downward, arrest wheezing, stop coughing and warm and transform phlegm-cold • Deputy: Ban xia, Hou po, Qian hu, chen pi • Ban xia, Hou po, Qian hu: expel phlegm, stop cough, arrest wheezing • Chen pi: move qi and expel phlegm • Assistant: rou gui, dang gui • Rou gui: warm the kidneys and restores their ability to grasp the qi • Dang gui: regulate blood, prevent injury to the yin • Envoy: sheng jiang, su ye, zhi gan cao, da zao • Sheng jiang and su ye: disperse cold and improve circulation in the lung. • Zhi gan cao and da zao: harmonize the middle jiao, resolve the phlegm.
Modern application and attentions • Modern application • Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, bronchial asthma and cardiac asthma • Attentions: • Inappropriate for treating lung qi deficiency without externally-contracted pathogenic influence and lung heat.
Arrest Wheezing Decoction (ding chuan tang) Ingredients: Yin xing 9g, Ma huang 9g, Su zi6g, Gan cao 3g, Kuan dong hua 9g, Xing ren 4.5g, Sang bai pi 9g, Huang qin 4.5g, Ban xia 9g
Actions and indications of the formula • Actions: • Disseminate and redirect the lung qi, arrest wheezing, clear heat and transform phlegm. • Indications • Coughing and wheezing with copious, thick and yellow sputum, labored breathing, a greasy, yellow tongue coating and a slippery, rapid pulse. There may be simultaneous fever and chills.
Analysis of Formula • Chief: ma huang, yin xing • Ma huang: unblock the lung qi, arrest wheezing, and release the exterior. • Yin xing: transform phlegm • Deputy: Ban xia, su zi, xing ren, kuan dong hua • direct the rebellious qi downward, arrest wheezing, expel phlegm • Assistant: sang bai pi, huang qin • drain heat from the lungs, arrest wheezing and stop coughing. • Envoy: gan cao • Harmonize the other herbs
Modern application and attentions • Modern application • Chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma and bronchiolitis • Attentions: • Inappropriate in cases of externally contracted wind-cold without internal phlegm heat and chronic asthma with qi deficiency and deficient pulse.
Four Milled-Herb Decoction (si mo tang) Ingredients: ren shen, bing lang, chen xiang, wu yao