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The Experiment: Hunting for Causes

The Experiment: Hunting for Causes

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The Experiment: Hunting for Causes

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  1. The Experiment: Hunting for Causes Ch 1 Sec 6 Pages 26-30

  2. Objectives • Define experiments- Need this for whole year! • Create An example of an experiment • Formulate a flow chart of variables in a psychological experiment • List the items for psychological experiment guidelines

  3. experiments in psychology • Descriptive studies are nice….HOWEVER • Experimental method is great for cause of behavior • Experiment allows researcher to Control or manipulate, the situation being studied • Not just an observer; NOT LIKE naturalistic observation • Can actively seek cause and effect

  4. Shock Experiment

  5. What do you see?

  6. Ethical Guidelines • APA has code of ethics • Informed consent- Subjects must be informed so they can make intelligent decision • Protect physical and mental harm • Animals and Humane treatment

  7. Experimental variables= Looking for relationship • Ask A question .. Do cigarettes effect driving? • Nicotine in cigarettes improves reaction time • THEREFORE give ½ subjects cigs, half placebo; then test driving • Independent Variable- changed or manipulated by researcher • Dependent Variable- Reaction of subject, behavior…Outcome, depends on I.V. • I.V. cigs, placebo. D.V. driving, wrecks

  8. chapter 1

  9. Experimental and Control Conditions • Experiments usually require experiment condition AND control condition • Control Condition- People, subjects, treated exactly like those in ex. Con. HOWEVER not given same treatment or manipulation or stimulus of I.V. • As a result 2 groups; Experimental group, control group

  10. Experimental/ Control Conditions cont. • Random assignment- Desire age, gender, socioeconomic difference So give numbers then say odds over here- even over hear. • F.E. class cards • Placebo- Fake treatment

  11. Experiment effects • Expectations of subs/researchers can influence study • Single-blind study- Participants DO NOT KNOW if they are in control group or experimental . group • Experimenter effects-Tone of voice, facial expressions, posture can effect peoples responses • Double Blind study-Researcher doesn’t know groups either

  12. chapter 1 Experimenter effects Unintended changes in subjects’ behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter. Strategies for preventing experimenter effects include single- and double-blind studies.

  13. Advantages and Limitations of Experiments • Cause and effect and Placebo= positive • Negative- • Participants not represent group accurately • Researcher makes the questions • Field Research- Uses descriptive and experimental methods • F.E. study prejudice in schools and lab

  14. Summary Time! • Variables • Experiments, groups, conditions • Experimenter effects