1 / 21

Chapter 14

Chapter 14. Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective. Psychological Skills Training. Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective. Sports Psychology. Sports Psychology; Study of people ’ s behaviour in the field of sport.

Télécharger la présentation

Chapter 14

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 14 Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  2. Psychological Skills Training Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective

  3. Sports Psychology Sports Psychology; Study of people’s behaviour in the field of sport. There are three main fields of sport psychology • Social Psychology – Social/personal interactions determine behaviour • Psychophysiology – Physiological effect of the brain • Cognitive-behavioural Psychology – How an individual’s thoughts affect their behaviour. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  4. Psychological Skills Training Focuses on cognitive behavioural aspects of sports psychology. • Psychological skills, like physical skills, can be learnt via training (PST). • PST can dramatically improve performances • PST programs are individualised Techniques include; Goal setting, arousal, mental rehearsal, confidence and concentration PST has three main stages; • Education – What techniques are currently used and being told about other options • Acquisition – Taught how to use the technique • Practice – Use of the technique in training and competition. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  5. Goal Setting Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective

  6. Goal Setting Goal setting is where athletes set down clear targets, priorities and expectations. • Goal setting has been shown to increase work out put up to 40-50%. • Goals need to be set up for both training and competition. • Long term goals aim at the broader target, whereas short term goals provide more manageable focus points. See Fig 13.2 p.313 Types of goals; • Outcome goals – Focus on end results, times, finishing places or medals. • Performance goals – Focus on comparing present performance levels with those obtained previously. Independent to other competitors. • Process goals – Focus on physical movements and game strategies. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  7. Goal Setting - SMARTER The National Coaching Association has set down the following ‘SMARTER’ way of setting goals; Specific – Clear goals to focus on Measurable – Need to be assessed against previous performances Accepted – Acceptance by the all parties involved Realistic – Goals need to be within the athlete’s capacity Time Phased – Specific date for completion needs to be set Exciting – Challenged, inspired and rewarding goals Recorded – Goals should be written down and kept Goal setting improves performance by; • Focusing attention on important elements of the skill/s being performed • Activating and organising an athlete’s efforts • Encouraging athlete perseverance • Promoting the development of new learning strategies • Refining movements and set plays • Contributing towards a positive psychological state VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  8. Goals (Short and Long Term) VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  9. Arousal Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective

  10. Arousal Arousal is the amount of readiness or activation a person experiences when faced with a task. Athletes need an optimal level of arousal to experience success. Moderate level is ideal zone. Note. Arousal levels and performance outcomesvary in athletes VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  11. Arousal Regulation Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective

  12. Arousal Regulation Arousal reduction techniques; • Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) • Breath control – Used to relax and refocus • Biofeedback – Sensors detect raised tension or stress in the body • Stress-inoculation training (SIT) – Building immunity to stress via training. Arousal promotion techniques; • Elevated breathing rate – Increases state of awareness in CNS. • Act energetic • Positive talk and sounds: ‘Talk it Up!’ • Energising imagery • Pre-competition workout VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  13. Mental Imagery Mental Imagery, or visualisation, is used by athletes when they imagine themselves performing skill before actually doing them. • It is a form of simulation • Sensory experience which occurs in the mind via thought • Strengthens neural pathways • Images can be kinaesthetic, auditory and tactile. • Mental rehearsal needs to be done in a relaxed state for 5-10 minutes at a time. • Simulation training is considered more effective than mental imagery in that it replicates the game situation. • Visuo-motor behaviour rehearsal (VMBR) – Requires a relaxed state to perform mental imagery and then conducting the skill under simulated conditions. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  14. Concentration Concentration contains three parts; • Focusing on relevant environmental clues • Maintaining attention focus over time • Having awareness of the situation Note. Concentration and attention are used interchangeably in sports psychology. Attention can be described in terms of width and direction. • Broad-internal – Focus on thoughts and feelings • Broad-external – Focus outwards on an opponents actions • Narrow-internal – Mentally rehearse movements • Narrow-external – Focus on very few external cues VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  15. Concentration VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  16. Concentration and Choking Factors leading to a lack of attention; • Focus on past experiences • Can’t ‘let things go’ • Future orientated thinking • ‘What if’ questions • Focusing on negative aspects of their game Concentration can improved via; • Simulation • Use of cue words • Having set routines • Over-learning skills Choking can also cause concentration to falter. • Occurs when pressure is built up • A lot is riding on the next phase of play • Causes attention to narrow and become internal • Can impair timing and coordination See figure 13.7 p.324 VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  17. The Choking Process VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  18. Confidence Building Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective

  19. Confidence Building Self-confidence is the belief individuals possess in becoming successful. Self-confident athletes; • Believe in themselves and their skills • Exhibit positive emotions • Remain calm under pressure • Work towards their goals • More likely to take risks during games Improving confidence • Achieving success at training and during competition • Thinking more positively • Using positive imagery • Ability to follow and understand game plans VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  20. Confidence Levels VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  21. Australian Sports Commission: http://www.ausport.gov.au • Find 30 promotion (Government of WA Department of Health): http://www.find30.com.au • Walking School Bus promotion (UK): http://www.walkingbus.com • Ministry of Health (New Zealand) toolkits: http://www.newhealth.govt.nz • The 10,000 Steps Rockhampton project: http://www.10000steps.org.au/rockhampton/ • Travelsmart Australia: http://www.travelsmart.gov.au • World Health Organisation: http://www.who.int • Heart Foundation Australia: http://www.heartfoundation.com.au • VicHealth (The Victorian Health Promotion Foundation): http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au • Be Active promotion (Government of South Australia): http://www.beactive.com.au • Go For Your Life: http://www.goforyourlife.vic.gov.au • Physical Activity Resources for Health Professionals – Introduction (Centre for disease control and prevention – USA): http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/health_professionals/index.htm • Health Promotion (Public Health Agency of Canada): http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/index.html • Strategic Inter-Governmental Forum on Physical Activity and Health (SIGPAH): http://www.nphp.gov.au/workprog/sigpah/ • Healthy youth (Centre for disease control and prevention (USA): http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/ • America On The Move promotion: http://www.americaonthemove.org • Papers from the International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity: http://www.ijbnpa.org/home • Department of health and aging (Australian government): http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/content/home • Building a healthy, active Australia (Australian government): http://www.healthyactive.gov.au • National Public Health Partnership: http://www.nphp.gov.au • Be Active promotion (Government of South Australia): http://www.beactive.com.au • Sport and Recreation Australia: http://www.sport.vic.gov.au Web Links – Chapter 14 • Australian Institute of Sport – Performance psychology research: http://www.ais.org.au/psychology/research.asp • Athletic Insight – online journal of sport psychology: http://www.athleticinsight.com • Australian Psychological Society (information about sport psychologists): http://www.psychology.org.au/psych/special_areas/2.4_9.asp • Psych web – Sport psychology: http://www.psywww.com/sports/index.htm • Sport psychology resrouces (Psychwatch.com): http://www.psychwatch.com/sport_psychology.htm • Sports science library (Gatorade Sports Science Institute): http://www.gssiweb.com/sportssciencecenter/topic.cfm?id=62 • Peak performance sports – mental resources: http://www.peaksports.com/tips_resources.php • Article – In the zone: Training your mind as well as your body (CNN): http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/SM/00001.html VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

More Related