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The Way of the Prophets :

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  1. The Way of the Prophets: • Restoring the Balance in Ramadan

  2. Obligation: Qur’an • "O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqun (the pious).(Fasting) for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (i.e. an old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a poor person (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast, it is better for you if only you know." (2:183-84)"The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Quran, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan), he must fast that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number (of days which one did not fast must be made up) from other days.Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him" (2: 185).

  3. Obligation: Hadith • Abu Huraira related that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: Whoever fasts during Ramadan with faith and seeking his reward from Allah will have his past sins forgiven. Whoever prays during the nights in Ramadan with faith and seeking his reward from Allah will have his past sins forgiven. And he who passes Lailat al-Qadr in prayer with faith and seeking his reward from Allah will have his past sins forgiven (Bukhari, Muslim).Abu Huraira related that Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: If anyone omits his fast even for one day in Ramadan without a concession or without being ill, then if he were to fast for the rest of his life he could not make up for it (Bukhari).Abu Huraira related that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: Allah the Majestic and Exalted said: "Every deed of man will receive ten to 700 times reward, except Siyam (fasting), for it is for Me and I shall reward it (as I like). There are two occasions of joy for one who fasts: one when he breaks the fast and the other when he will meet his Lord" (Muslim).Abu Huraira related that Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: Many people who fast get nothing from their fast except hunger and thirst, and many people who pray at night get nothing from it except wakefulness (Darimi)

  4. History • The word Ramadan originates from the Arabic root ramida or ramad, which means “intense scorching heat or dryness”. Some have said “scarcity of rations” • It is Allah’s gift to mankind • Allah wanted to give us a time during which we are totally dedicated to worship. Hence He put the Shaytan in chains • Became obligatory on a Monday during the 2nd year of migration (Hijrah) - Abdullah ibn Abbas RA narrates that the first two things given to the Believers after migration were the Baitullah becoming the Qiblah and fasts of Ramadan • Ibn Hajar writes that the Prophet SAW fasted for 9 Ramadans • He SAW used to make i’tikaaf (seclusion) during this month even before its obligation and it was in this month, he received the first revelation in Hira. ‘Ubaid ibn ‘Umar narrates: Each year the Prophet SAW would go to Mount Hira for a month in search of solitude and it was in that month that He announced His Prophethood and that was the month of Ramadan. He SAW had a relationship with Ramadan, both before His announcement of His Prophethood and after

  5. Why Do We Fast? • Fasting is a means that: • • allows us to appreciate and give thanks for pleasures • • makes us give up haram things • • helps us control our desires • • enables us to feel compassion and empathy towards the poor • • humiliates and weakens the Shaytan • • trains us to remember that Allah is always watching • • assists us in developing an attitude of asceticism towards this world and its desires • • gets us used to doing numerous acts of worship

  6. Fiqh of Ramadan • Definition • Types of Fasts • Intention - Specific and Non-Specific • Actions that invalidate the fast - 4 categories • Exemptions • I’tikaaf

  7. Fasting/Sawm • To withhold from eating, drinking, and marital relations during daylight hours, with an intention of fasting, performed by one capable and required to do so

  8. 7 Types of Fasts • Obligatory / fard • Mandatory / wajib • Sunna • Recommended / mandub • Voluntary / nafl • Prohibitively disliked / makruh tahriman • Mildly disliked / makruh tanzihan

  9. Intention (Specific) • The following require an intention and specification of type:1)Makeups (qada) from Ramadan2) Makeups from voluntary (nafl) that was invalidated3) Fasts of expiation (kaffara)4) Unspecified vows (nadhr mutlaq)

  10. Kaffarah • What is a Kaffarah? It is an Expiation- Fast for 60 days consecutivelyHowever, if a person is genuinely unable to keep these 60 fasts, for a truly valid reason, then one has the option of choosing from one of the following four:1) Feed sixty poor people to their fill for two meals, or2) Feed one poor person two meals a day, for sixty days; or3) Give sixty poor persons 3 lbs. (approx. 1.6 kg.) of wheat or its value in cash or food grains;4) Give to one poor person not less than 3.5 lbs. of wheat, rice or food grains, etc. or its value in cash for sixty days

  11. Intention (Non-Specific) • The following don’t require a specification; intention is made anytime from previous night until dahwa kubra:1)Ramadan fasts during the month2) Specified vows (nadhr mu’ayyan)3) Voluntary (nafl) fasts

  12. Actions that Invalidate the Fast (mufsidat) • The actions of one who is fasting are divided into four categories:1) Those that require a makeup as well as expiation2) Those that require a makeup without expiation3) Those that require nothing (and are not disliked)4) Those that require nothing yet are disliked

  13. Exemptions • People who are exempted from fasting in Ramadan:1) Ill person eg. Type 1 Diabetes 2) Pregnant/Nursing womanNot required to make up before the next Ramadan3) Severe thirst4) Traveler • Sports/P.E. /Training are not valid reasons • Fidya: $6 (wheat), $15 (barley), $21 (raisins), $33 (dates)

  14. Inner Dimensions • There are 3 Grades of Fasting:1) Ordinary2) Special:1) See not2) Speak not3) Hear not4) Do not5) Avoid overeating6) Look to Allah with Fear and Hope • 3) Extra-Special:Fasting from the heart from unworthy concerns and worldly thoughts, in total disregard of everything but Allah

  15. His Love for Ramadan • Supplication at the beginning of Rajab • Begin to fast in Sha’ban • Special arrangements to sight the moon of Sha’ban

  16. Beginning Ramadan • Special du’a • Congratulate Companions • Welcoming Sermon • Describe virtues of fasting

  17. Five Glad Tidings • Abu Hurayrah (RA) narrates that the Prophet SAW said: ‘In relation to Ramadan, my Ummah has been given five things never granted to any previous nation:1) The smell from a fasting person’s mouth is more beloved to Allah than the fragrance of musk2) The fish in the sea keep seeking forgiveness from Allah for the fasting person until Iftar3) Allah decorates Jannah everyday4) The devils are chained up in this month5) The Ummah is forgiven in the last night”

  18. Suhoor • It is a blessed meal • Make Suhoor with dates • Distinction between the Muslims and Ahl al Kitab • Eat healthy

  19. During the Day • Qur’an, Qur’an & Qur’an: Recite and, if not, listen • Reading is better than translation, tafseer and listening - double reward if it’s difficult for you • And it must be recited, not looked at • Be generous: Give something everyday • It is not enough to just give up food and drink • Do not spend all day sleeping

  20. Iftar • Although He SAW did Iftar immediately after sunset, He made sure the sun had set. • He SAW did Iftar with the poor • He SAW did Iftar before Maghrib • Did Iftar with dates, water, andor milk • Du’a at the time of Iftar

  21. Iftar Party • Waste of time (preparing, driving there, upon arrival there) • Waste of food • Du’as are not made • Late to the Masjid for ‘Isha • Alternatively, sponsor an Iftar

  22. Taraweeh • Sunnah of the Prophet SAW • In its current form since the time of Umar (RA): Ijmaa’ of the ummah that it is 20 Rak’ah • Know that it is specific to Ramadan, so pray it - stop arguing about how many Rak’ahs it is • Don’t make noise in the parking lot - keep the parking lot clean • At least pray ‘Isha & Fajr in the Masjid

  23. i’tikaaf/Last 10 days • Literally means ‘seclusion’ • Can be done at any time • Last 10 nights of Ramadan are recommended • Any amount of time • I’tikaaf for women • Increase His effort • Awaken His family • I’tikaf: Seclusion (Talk/eat only when required) • Seek night of Qadr

  24. Zakat • Calculate your Zakat • The fiscal year is the lunar year • Give your Zakat, or at least separate it • Local vs. Abroad • Zakat must be given every year, on jewelry also • Give to poor & needy; not masjid operation/construction funds • The receiver does not need to know

  25. Schedule • Make a schedule! • Prepare during Sha’baan (shopping, etc.) • Take time off from work - Use your vacation time • Pray Fard prayers at the Masjid • Come to Friday Prayers early • Attend every Taraweeh • Carry a Qur’an with you

  26. Shawwal • Fast the 6 of Shawwal • Cannot combine intentions