Chapter 1—Good Writers Are Good Readers • Writing and Reading are active and they must be analyzed and interpreted. • Good readers often preview the text, ask questions, and make personal connections
Ch. 2--The Writing ProcessPage 12, Cooley • Writing is a recursive process; that is, it involves repetition. • Plan • Draft • Revise • Edit Good writers rarely turn in their first draft!
Why Write? What is Your Purpose? to inform (most common) to persuade (to encourage action) to express yourself (creative writing fiction/diaries) to entertain
Who is Your Audience? It is important that you take into consideration who it is you want to reach. Words carry the message (and can be misunderstood) so assess your audience before writing! Rhetorical Situation: Page 15, Cooley
Think Critically Make sure you organize and refine your ideas before submission. Effective writers rarely submit their first drafts. Good writing requires time, revision, and reflection.
Getting Started( Page 19) Before you start writing, it helps to organize your thoughts. Two common methods: Brainstorming: focusing intently on a subject and listing every idea and detail that comes to mind.
Organizing Thoughts (Page 20) • Clustering: Free word association emphasizing the relations between ideas by using nonlinear drawing/connections.
Activity • Cluster some ideas (at least six) that focus around the following topic: There are several challenges students face when they enter their first year of college.
Once you have some ideas the next step is to use the technique of Questioning—What type of essay will you be writing? A useful way to generate information is to ask questions about your topic, audience, & purpose • WHO? • WHAT? • WHERE? • WHEN? • WHY?
ESSAY PATTERNS (page 25) • Narration: How did it happen? • Description: How does it look, sound, feel? • Illustration: What are the reasons? • Analysis: What are its parts? • Classification:Into what groups can it be sorted? • Compare/Contrast: Similarities vs. Differences • Cause-Effect: Why did it happen? • Process Analysis: How does it work?
Parts of an Essay (p. 28) • All essays—no matter how long or how short—must always have a beginning (introduction), a middle (the body), and an end (the conclusion). • See graphic organizer on board***
Paragraphing • An effective paragraph focuses one central idea and maintains unity. • The general idea --topic sentence--must then be supported with specific details (facts, evidence, reasons, examples) One of the most enjoyable restaurants to take “that special someone” out to dinner is ___________.
The details must be coherent—the sentences flow together logically and smoothly. • Transitional expressions (34-35) Help to connect ideas and forge fluency between sentences.
Give detail to your supporting sentences—never be vague! Use your senses. • 1. The food was delicious. • 2. The accident was horrific. • 3. The instructor had no idea what she was doing. • 4. The dog behaved badly and was in need of training. • 5. The economy is crippling the average family.
Homework: • Review the topic you previously brainstormed: There are several challenges students face when they enter their first year of college. • Compose three separate paragraphs based on the topic above. Make sure you are detailed and focus on one main point per paragraph.
*Grabber or attention getter *General description of topic *Thesis (what specifically is your essay mainly about? Most introductions follow a basic format. Begin with an attention getter or “grabber” to get the reader’s attention. Then provide a sentence or two giving a general description of the topic. Then provide the thesis which highlights the main point (s) of your essay. The Introduction
Opening Paragraphs of an Essay (p.30) • Opening paragraphs announce the topic and he writer’s approach to that topic. Common strategies: • Interesting anecdote • Thought-provoking question • Background information • Common view the writer and readers share • Forecast the rest of the essay
THE THESIS The thesis announces the main point, major claim, or controlling idea in an essay. It prepares readers for what they will be reading. Example: Why would anyone enter politics? Politicians, after all, have to give up their privacy and devote their entire lives toward service. Politicians, once elected, are obliged to consider the moral and social standards of those who elected them, and their behavior must reflect those standards. In fact, there are three important rules of behavior to observe if one wishes to succeed in politics.
Concluding Paragraphs • Restate your main point (the thesis) and remind readers of your key points. • Emphasize the significance of your perspective on the topic. • Bring your piece to closure.
Revising(36) • Looking at your draft and making necessary changes in content, organization, or emphasis. • Asking questions: Is there enough detail? Is it organized well? Is there a good variety of sentence length?
Editing & Proofreading • This is when you add your finishing touches to correct minor errors in grammar, spelling, sentence structure, etc. • Review the checklist on page 45 before turning in your essays. • Review Ch. 3 for Academic Essay examples
Descriptive Writing p. 121 It’s important to paint an image in the reader’s mind by using great detail. • Sensory Approach: utilizing details from all 5 senses (smell, sight, touch, taste, sound) • Spatial Approach: describing in terms of physical dimensions and its relationship to the objects around it.
Beginning With DetailsP. 128 • Begin a description with specific details and let your readers form an impression. Create a dominant (overall) impression: You don’t have to give equal attention to all the senses; you can appeal to a single sense.
Use Figurative Language • Make comparisons (by using similes and metaphors, personification) to allow the reader to make connections to your piece. • Stay consistent in the vantage point (the perspective in which the piece is written) • Watch out for vague “empty” words: wonderful, fun, things, big, small, etc.
Reader Response In class: • Hurston’s, “How It Feels to Be Colored Me” p. 157 • Discuss selected questions: 1, 2, 3 in corresponding sections on page 162. At home: • E. B. White’s “Once More to the Lake” 2., 1, 4
Example / ExemplificationChapter 6, p. 173 • Providing a “for instance” or illustration • It provides abstract concepts more concretely • Two parts: 1. A general statement Everything was on sale. • Specific items illustrating the general statement. Shoes, pants, glasses, etc.
Always consider your audience! • What if you are describing your fantasy man or woman? You would describe that person very differently to your grandmother than you would to your best friend! • Grandma:He’s so charming and sweet! • Best friend: She’s hot! She’s got the finest…. Your audience may be professionals in which you are using technical terms of the job.
Preplanning—p. 176 • Generate ideas/brainstorm • Develop a clear thesis your details will support • Provide specific examples to back up your supporting statements • Use transitions between examples • Review the check list on page 181. • Read p. 190 The Onion
Formal Essay 1 Compose an exemplification essay of 500-700 words which incorporates descriptive elements. You may choose one of the topics below: Discuss three people in your life (you may include yourself) who are guilty of one of the seven deadly sins. Provide specific examples to support your discussion. Please use first names only. The economy’s downward spiral has had a negative impact on various individuals. Discuss this (first person or third person is okay) in detail providing examples to back up your discussion.
Make sure to follow MLA formatting • See page 725 in text • Double space • Heading top left hand corner • Centered title • Proper margins • Paging with last name on top right hand corner
Comparison and ContrastCh. 8 p. 269 • Discussing the similarities and differences of a particular topic • Think about this: Do you shop around before you buy a car, a home, or clothes? Why do you do this?
Always compare subjects that are truly comparable (apples to apples). Your subjects should have enough in common to provide a solid basis of comparison. Always choose your purpose carefully. Are you writing merely to inform or to evaluate? • See page 272
Planning the Essay • Brainstorm some ideas that are comparable and then list their similarities/differences. • Possible topics: restaurants, clothing stores, make-up, athletic teams, pets, vehicles • ACTIVITY: Choose a topic a brainstorm similarities/differences. See p. 273
Choosing an Organization • Point by point: discuss each point of similarity or difference between your two subjects before going on to the next point. See p. 274 • Individual points: discuss each subject separately indicating both similarities and differences • Review checklist: 279-280
Homework • Compose a Comparison/Contrast essay draft (500-700 words) on a subject of your choosing. Have this ready by next class to discuss. • Complete reader response sections on Kristof & Sapra in journal: questions 1 & 2 of corresponding sections.
ClassificationPage 316 Breaking a subject into categories by sorting them into groups Step1: Divide your subject into appropriate categories Step2: Examine important attributes Step 3: Organizing ideas
Organization of Essay p. 319 • Introduction: This should tell the reader what you are classifying and why and also explain your system. review past essays • Body:Choose the significant characteristics to categorize. Example: Three types of parents: The overachievers, the “I’m never there,” and the “my kid can do no wrong” parents.
Conclusion: Review your discussion, bring essay to close • Review Checklist, p. 326 • Discuss student example, p. 328 • Brainstorm ideas & begin drafting
Formal Essay 2 • The Classification ASSIGNMENT: Choose a topic you can classify into three parts(restaurants, movies, cars, music, pets, occupations, etc.) and use strategies of descriptive writing to make your paper clear and detailed. 500-700 words. Bring in draft to next class!
Writing to Explain Causes & EffectsChapter 11, p. 451 Causes: Reasons why something occurs (the action) Effects: The result or consequence of the action Because Mary didn’t study, she failed the test.
Cause-Effect Examples • Why does the cost of attending college seem to increase? • Why does the freshmen failure rate at universities increase each year? • What causes low morale in the workplace? • What are the effects of rudeness at work?
Rhetorical Considerations • Audience: Who would be likely to accept your claims? • Purpose: To convince readers that a cause-effect relationship exists. • Voice/Point of View: What are your attitudes toward the topic and audience? How will you convey this attitude? • Context: What is the most effective way to present your information?
Organizing the Cause-Effect Paper Options for organizing the paper p. 455: • Identify an effect & determine its causes • Identify a cause & determine its effects • Determine a series of causes & effects
Activity • Brainstorm some ideas for a topic. • Complete a clustering or mapping activity in which you branch relationships among your topic. • Prepare a brief outline highlighting the organizational pattern that would work best for your topic..
Introduction strategies—Remember to grab the reader’s attention! You can do one of the following: • Vividly portray how/why the topic is important Picture this: It is midnight and your car just broke down. You are in the middle of nowhere and you have no idea where the nearest service station is. What do you do? How will you get help? Thanks to technology and the invention of the cellular phone problems such as this are rare. • Make a statement that suggests the unexpected • Examine a surprising causal relationship
Essay Body: Choose the strategy that suits your topic • Conclusion: Reinforce the connections between the causes/effects. Bring closure to your discussion.
Revising • Put aside your draft for a day or two • Is the thesis clear? • Will the reader be interested? • Are all explanations and connections clearly defined?
Editing & Polishing • The final stage in perfecting the essay • Review grammar, sentence structure, punctuation, etc. • Make minor changes • Activity: Review Varian essay on page 500 and discuss.
Writing Scenarios Issues which you feel need to be addressed: • Community (pollution, speeding laws) • Campus (tuition, parking) • Political (employment, healthcare) • Educational (class size reduction, uniforms) • Media (violence on TV, news ethics) • Occupational (dangers in the workplace)
Formal Essay 3 • Discuss some type of problematic issue in society and its causes/effect. You must cite two outside sources to solidify your discussion. The essay must be 700-1000 words and include a works cited page. Draft due next class and final due next Wednesday.