Periodic Table • Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the known elements by characteristics. He summarized his findings in the periodic law which states: • When the elements are arranged in order of increasing mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically. • The elements are arranged in increasing order according to atomic mass. • They are arranged in rows and columns based on characteristics of elements.
Periodic Table http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif
Periodic Table • Broadly elements can be divided into 3 groups • Metals: good conductors of heat and electricity, they are malleable (can be pounded into flat sheets), they are ductile (can be drawn out into thin wires), shiny, lose electrons, chemically reactive. • Examples include chromium, copper, strontium, and lead http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Graphics/MixedMetals(mayFranInt.).jpe
Periodic Table • Nonmetals: can be solids, liquids, or gases, poor conductors of heat and electricity, gain electrons, undergo chemical changes. • Examples include oxygen, carbon, sulfur, and bromine http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/X/6/graphite.jpg http://www.amazingrust.com/Experiments/how_to/Images/Chlorine_gas.jpg
Periodic Table • Metalloids: show mixed properties between metals and nonmetals. They are called semiconductors with intermediate conductivity. • Examples include silicon, arsenic, and antimony http://www.mine-engineer.com/mining/mineral/Silicon.jpg http://www.summagallicana.it/lessico/a/arsenic%20Jachymov.jpg
Periodic Table • The Metal, Metalloids, and Nonmetals are arranged in particular portions of the Periodic Table.
Periodic Table • Each column of the Main group elements is called a family or group. Each group has specific characteristics • Noble gases- Group 8A Not reactive in most chemical reactions, they are considered stable with no charge. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/6_the_noble_gases.gif
Periodic Table • Alkali Metals- Group 1A are all reactive metals, Some are explosive. Have a positive 1 charge. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/periodictable_group1.jpg
Periodic Table • Alkaline earth metals- Group 2A- Also fairly reactive, but not as reactive as the alkali metals. Have a 2+ charge. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.vectorsite.net/tpchem_eBe.png&imgrefurl=http://www.vectorsite.net/tpchem_05.html&usg=__bmu82B0xWcgEl4ies1I6VDkAye4=&h=600&w=724&sz=34&hl=en&start=5&itbs=1&tbnid=CQBSvcszpC81oM:&tbnh=116&tbnw=140&prev=/images%3Fq%3DAlkaline%2Bearth%2Bmetals%26hl%3Den%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1
Periodic Table • Halogens- Group 7A Very reactive nonmetals. Have a negative 1 charge as ions. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/periodictable_group7.gif
Periodic Table • The transition metals are in the middle of the table and have varying charges