Thursday, January 9th Bell Work: Please log-on to your assigned computer and review the Unit 1.1 and 1.2 vocabulary using the flashcards on the class wiki’s vocab page.
What is wrong with this paragraph? (How many mistakes can you find?) The first successful British settlement in North America was formed at Powhattan (later Manhattan) in 1607. This venture of the Virginia Company, and led by Prince Henry the Navigator, struggled initially to establish a thriving colony. During the “Starving Time,” the colonists were nearly wiped out by the neighboring Pueblo tribe, until John Smith discovered “Brown Gold,” a fossil fuel resource that the Natives valued greatly for heating. Eventually, the Roanoke colony replaced Powhattan as the most important British colony until the French patroons took over under the leadership of Hernando de Soto in 1664.
What is wrong with this paragraph? The first successful British settlement in North America was formed at Powhattan (later Manhattan) in 1607. This venture of the Virginia Company, and led by Prince Henry the Navigator, struggled initially to establish a thriving colony. During the “Starving Time,” the colonists were nearly wiped out by the neighboring Pueblo tribe, until John Smith discovered “Brown Gold,” a fossil fuel resource that the Natives valued greatly for heating. Eventually, the Roanoke colony replaced Powhattan as the most important British colony until the French patroonstook over under the leadership of Hernando de Soto.
Daily Agenda: • Bell Work: Vocab Acquisition • Socratic Seminar: 1491 Realities vs. Preconceptions • Crash Course: Pre-Columbian America • Lecture: The Earliest Americans and Exploration (1.1 and 1.2) Essential Question: How did the diverse backgrounds of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans both enhance and limit the development of an American society? Homework: Complete SFI list and Review Questions for Unit 1.2.
Socratic Seminar: 1491 • How complex were American societies in comparison to European societies in 1491? • Why do you think so many historian would have preferred to live in the Americas (over Europe) in that era? • Why, traditionally, have we portrayed the civilizations in the Americas in such a different light? • How do these realizations force us to revisit the concept of Columbian Exchange? • Was Columbian Exchange beneficial to the Americas? • How should historians define the arrival of Europeans in the Americas? Where does the truth lie?
Who, When, from Where, Why? • What is the difference between immigration and migration? • Long before Columbus , what is the story of how people got to America? • Land Bridge over Bering Strait • Approx. 20-40 thousand years ago
Development of Civilization • Hunter-gatherers • What did they do? • Subsistence farmers • Enough for who? • City-States • In N & S America, civilizations came about after there was a surplus of what crop?
Early Cultures in America • Olmec/Mayan in Yucatan Peninsula • Aztec is Central Mexico • Inca in South America • Anasazi and Hohokam – SW USA • Mississippian Culture • Mound builders • Cahokia Mound (Illinois) • Crystal River • Ancestors to modern tribes
What is the most important thing to know about the pre-Columbian Native Americans? • There were hundreds/thousands of different nations. • Not United! • How would that hurt them against European invaders? • One group loosely united – Iroquois • Confederation (loose union) of tribes • Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora
Florida Tribes in 1492 • South Florida – Calusa • Middle/NE – Timucua • Panhandle – Apalachee • Plus other smaller tribes • If you were a Native America living in Citrus County 500 years ago, what area would be best to live? • How would you live?
Africa in the 1300s and 1400s • Ancient trading kingdoms – Ghana, Mali, Songhai • Traded on both sides of the Sahara Desert and had technology from both. Controlled large areas. • Tribes had slavery. • What happened when European interacted with coastal tribes in 1400s? • How was slavery different than what it would be in the new world?
Europe in 1300s and 1400s • Most modern nations were not yet developed. Many smaller kingdoms. • But what was the one unifying source for Europe? • Who was the unofficial leader of Europe? • How was this shown? • Crusades
Out of the Dark Ages • Marco Polo – how did his writings lead to exploration? • What was the big deal about spices? • Renaissance – rebirth in learning • Scientific Revolution – Compass, Astrolabe, Caravels (ships)
Death and Monarchs • “Black Death” or Black Plague How would the immune system be of the survivors? How would this be different from the Native Americans? • Smaller kingdoms combine to form larger nations • Would be competing with each other. • In 1500 the most powerful European countries were: • Portugal • Spain • France • Netherlands • England
The Drunk Priest strikes • Martin Luther – 95 theses and split of church • Reformation • Protestant Churches • Christian, but not Roman Catholic or Greek Orthodox • Many of the Protestants would have groups settle in the American colonies.
Hierarchy • Social Hierarchy • Within royal families • Primogeniture • Who got everything when dad died? • What did the other sons do? Daughters? • What if they explored new areas?
Reflection Questions • What happened to make civilizations occur in the Americas? • How is it that Native Americans did not all join together to fight the invading Europeans? • How was slavery in Africa and how would it be different in the new world? • How did events in Europe lead to exploration of the Americas?
Exploration Unit 1.2
Who came before Columbus? • Besides the original Native Americans, one group from Europe - • Vikings • Vineland, around 1000 A.D. • Why does it not really matter compared to Columbus?
Portugal • Prince Henry the Navigator – Started school, financed explorations • Portugal would search for route to Asia around Africa • Later Treaty of Tordesillas between Portugal and Spain. • Why would the Pope want this in 1494? • What was the problem with it?
1492 Who sailed the Ocean blue? • 1492 and Columbus changes history. • Columbian Exchange • New things in new places. • What are some new things to the New World? • What are some new things to the Old World? • What major agricultural products came to Florida that were not here before Columbus?
Spanish in the Americas • Conquistadores and the three Gs - ____, ____, and ____ • Cortes and the Aztecs • Repeating theme for Native Americans: • What happened to them once they met Europeans? • Encomienda System – demanded labor (feudal-like) • What was the problem with Native Americans for labor? • What was the solution?
Spanish in Florida (and Citrus Co.) • Ponce de Leon – 1513. What happened on his 2nd trip? • What is he truly looking for? • Pánfilo de Narváez – 1527 • Hernando de Soto – 1539 • St. Augustine (first city established in future US) • Pensacola and missions • Why did the Spanish establish those towns in Florida?
Spanish in the Southwest • Santa Fe established as capital of New Mexico in 1609. • Harsh treatment of Native Americans led to Pueblo Rebellion • Led by Pope in 1680 • California missions in response to Russian Alaska settlement
French in the Americas • Would settle in future Canada, Great Lakes area, and Mississippi River valley. New France • Explorers – Champlain, Jolliet, Marquette, La Salle • What was their major source of income? • How was their treatment of Native Americans different from other Europeans? Why?
The Dutch and Swedish • Established trading posts called Patroons • In New Netherlands • Now New York • New Amsterdam – NYC • Many financial ideas start • Port Orange – Albany • How was the treatment of Native Americans by the Dutch? • Swedish settle in current N.J. area • Taken over by Dutch • Bring to America the log cabin
Early British Exploration • Sir Francis Drake and raids on Spanish • John Cabot and the search for the Northwest Passage • Defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588 open door for English • Roanoke – “The Lost Colony” – founded in 1587 • Virginia Dare – 1st English child born in North America • What happened to it? • Croatan
Jamestown - 1607 • Virginia Company / London Company • Joint-stock company – purpose is to make $$$ • What were they looking for? • John Smith • Powhattan and his daughter (who is that?) • Starving Time (1609/10) • Saved (economically) by John Rolfe and his “brown gold” • Virginia Company later bankrupted, Virginia became the 1stroyal colony.
Reflection Questions • What long-term impacts did Spanish colonies have on what would be the United States? • Why did the Spanish settle Florida and California? • How was the treatment of Native Americans by different European Countries? • Why did the English first come to North America? • What is the real story behind the story of Pocahontas?