The Reproductive System By: A. V.
1) Introduction 2) Reproduction In Human Beings Male Female Puberty (Boys & Girls) 3) The Whole Process Embryo Fetus Baby 4) Exceptional Cases Twins Multiple Births 5) Progress And Research Test-Tube Babies Artificial Insemination Surrogate Mothers 6) Conclusion TABLE OF CONTENT
Introduction Can you imagine the phenomenal process that can change one barely visible cell into more than 200 million highly distinct cells in just 9 months? Think of the sequence of events that can transform a single fertilized egg into a fully developed baby that weighs 6 billion times more than a tiny dot from which it grows. Is it not amazing that after only 40 days into its 9 months (40 weeks) of growth, a developing embryo can have a heart that already has been beating for 2 weeks and a brain and nervous system that is capable of sending out impulses? Knowing all these excellent facts, I am sure you want to know more about this remarkable natural process by which a human being forms. So basically, the ability to give birth to more of their own kind is called reproduction. In this report I will talk about the male and the female reproductive system and the process by which a small bundle of joy comes into this universe.
Reproduction In Human Beings • It’s a amazing transitionfrom a unit called CELL to a cute little BABY. • One of the most important body functions. • A process by which life is created.
Male & Female Reproductive System The organs inside the male body consist of external reproductive organs, the genitals, the penis, and scrotum. Inside the scrotum are two testes, they produce testosterone and sperm. Then the sperm is stored inside the epididymis, located inside each testicles. The sperm from the epididymis, has to travel to the vas deferens. It then joins the duct from the seminal vesicle to become the ejaculatory duct. Then during sexual intercourse the male ejaculates a fluid into ejaculatory ducts and it mixes with the sperm. The prostate glands then mix the ejaculatory ducts and the urethra to make a clear, sticky fluid. When the men is ready, he will then ejaculate through his penis. The reproductive organs found inside the female body consist of vagina, the uterus, the fallopian tubes, and the ovaries.
Girls start puberty between 9-14 years of age. Once puberty begins the breasts start getting larger and rounder, hips will also get wider. Pubic hair will start to grow around the vagina and under arms. They can also expect pimples. Then each month during there menstructural cycle a mature egg is released from one of the females ovaries into one of the fallopian tube. There genitals begin to develop completely and start to produce mature eggs. Boys start puberty between 12-14 years of age. Once puberty begins your voice will change. They can also expect pimples to appear soon. They will get hair growing under arm, on there face, and maybe even on there chest. Pubic hair will start to grow on there genitals. The wet dreams will start to come and play an important role in there life. PUBERTY (BOYS &GIRLS)
The Whole Process It all begins when the males sperm fertilizes a female egg. This process is also called conception. This usually happens during sexual intercourse. During intercourse the male ejaculates his semen and it goes into the females vegina. The semen contains millions of sperm. The semen travels though the cervix into the females uterus and then into the fallopian tubes. Then during the females menstructural cycle a mature egg comes into contact with the sperm. Then together they travel down the fallopian tube. During that process fertilization occurs. The sperm must get through the egg in order for it to fertilize inside the head of the sperm, it is called a crozome. At that time the fertilized egg is called zygote. It contains 46 chromosomes, 23 from the egg, and 23 from the sperm. Before it reaches the uterus the zygote goes through few changes. After fertilization, the zygote moves through the fallopian tube towards the uterus. The zygote begins to divide from 1 cell, to 2 cells, to 4 cells, to 8 cells, and so on. This process is called cell division. After cell division the zygote is called embryo. After three days the embryo begins to produce hormones called human chorionic gonadotropin. The hormones stop the menstructural cycle so the pregnant female no longer gets her period.
Continued During the first two weeks of pregnancy, there are structures that help the embryo grow and begin to form in the uterus. One of the structures that help it grow is called placenta. The placenta removes the embryos waste materials and supplies it with oxygen and food. It also makes the hormones control the embryos development. All the major organs then start to form. At nine week the babies body begins to grow and its organs begin to develop until the baby born, from that point the baby is called a fetus. The first 3 months the fetus’s length increases dramatically growing many inches every month. Then during the last months of pregnancy the weight of the fetus greatly increases as well. When it’s time for the baby to be born the woman goes into labor and the baby comes out. Now the child is no longer called fetus but called a baby after birth.
EMBRYO This is a picture of a embryo, which is the second step of the process.
FETUS This is a picture of a fetus, which is the second step of the Formation.
BABY This is a picture of a baby, which is the third step of the Formation.
Exceptional CasesTWINS Twins are two children, who are born from the same mother, at the same time. They are born once in about 90 births. All humans are developed inside the mother’s body from an egg which is fertilized by the father’s sperm. Identical twins occur when the fertilized egg of the mother, splits into two pieces. Each egg develops into a baby and they have identical genes. Fraternal twins develop from 2 different eggs, which fertilize at the same time by the same sperm. Siamese Twins and Mirror-Image twins are extremely rare twins. The Siamese twins are exactly alike. The Mirror- image twins form when the egg of mother splits very late in the pregnancy. The first pair of Identical twins were Jim Springer and Jim Lewis. Since they were born till they were 30 years old, they never met each other till the researchers brought them together. The researchers found that they were both alike in so many ways, for example they both have the same kind of job, both there wives names are Linda, they were both married twice, and they both have a son name James.
Exceptional CasesMULTIPLE BIRTHS Triplets are three babies born from the same mother, at the same time. Four babies are called quadruplets. Five babies are called quintuplets. The triplets occur once in 7500 births, the quadruplets occur once in 650,000 births, and the quintuplets occur once in 57 000 000 births. Multiple births occur when the egg of the mother is split into 3, 4, or 5 parts. Lately the number of twins and multiple twins born has increased because of fertility drugs given to women, who aren’t able to become pregnant. The drugs cause the women’s body to give more than one egg at a time and that’s why more twins and multiple twins are being born.
Test-Tube Baby This process is also known as the “Embryo transplantation” or “In vitro fertilization” ( IVF ). The process starts when the egg is removed from the mother’s body to be placed in a dish, where it is mixed with the semen and nutrient fluids of the father. When the egg is fertilized it’s placed in another dish mixed with nutrient solutions. It is then left there for few days until the stages of growth start to occur. As the beginning of an embryo starts to form it is implanted in the mother’s uterus and then grows as a normal fetus inside the uterus. The first test-tube baby was born on 25th July, 1978 by the Caesarean Section in England. Till then a lot of women are conceiving through Test-tube babies and the success rate is increasing day by day of this amazing process.
Artificial Insemination (AI) Artificial Insemination is the process by which sperm is inserted into the female’s reproductive system, rather than sexual intercourse. Things like this show technology advancing. There are two ways by which this can be done. If the husband’s sperm is inserted into the woman’s vagina then it’s called “Artificial Insemination Husband” also known as (AIH). It is used when there is a problem with the men’s penis. The method used in AIH is by inserting sperm, directly next to the cervix in the women’s vagina. If an unidentified male’s sperm is inserted into the woman’s vagina then it’s called “Artificial Insemination Donor” also known as (AID). It is used when the woman is allergic to her husband’s sperm. The method used in AID is like AIH but by inserting the sperm of an unidentified male, directly next to the cervix in the women’s vagina.
Surrogate Mothers The word Surrogate Mothers came from a medical procedure called “In Vitro Fertilization” and “Embryo Transfer”. The process was first used in 1970. It was used when both husband and wife had an abnormality. In the process you first surgically remove the egg of the women. Then you fertilize it outside her body with her husband’s sperm. Next you put the fertilized egg inside another woman’s uterus. Then let it grow inside the woman’s uterus till it’s birth. The catholic church is one of the groups who disagrees with this procedure. They have said “Surrogate mothers have offended the dignity and right of the child to be conceived, carried in the womb, brought into the world and brought up by its parents.” Surrogate mothers have said surrogacy is an easy way to earn money. But I personally think that the experience of this will always be a terrible reminder for them and that money can buy a child but can’t buy motherhood.
Conclusion We started out with a tiny, weenie unit of life called “CELL” and now we are talking of a grown embryo, to a fetus, and to a baby! What a change! The power of the cell to do such a surprising creation, it amazed me. This inspired me to go in to depth of the creation of a human life from a cell.