Opposing Sides What is necessary to win a war?
Loyalists • British expected war to be over quickly, most powerful army in the world-J. Adams ”we have a long and bloody war to go through” • Declaration of Independence made war unavoidable • Brits had strongest navy in the world, world wide trade empire, 8 mil. People/ Col. 2.5 mil.- no professionally trained army • Neutral colonist- Quakers believed in nonviolence • Loyalist – loyal to throne called Tories, some change depending on how close the army was, Strongest in Carolinas and GA and weakest in NE • Some loyal because of Anglican Church, King hd. Some depended on Eng. For jobs, feared disorder from losing estab. Gov’t • Friends and Family divided • Lord Dunmore , Gov. of VA announced that slaves who fought for Brits would go free, went to Canada or settled in Sierra Leone
Patriots • Patriots fighting on own ground, Brits faraway and had to ship everything • Mercenaries fought for Brits, called Hessians, greater personal stake for Patriots • Leader: George Washington, honesty, courage and determination • Emphasis on liberty and personal freedom of citizens, each colony fought for own interest, Cont. Cong. Difficulty in raising money or soldiers, Created Cont. Army but depended on colonies to recruit, 1st signed up for 1 yr, Washington appealed for whole war, changed to 3 yrs or length of war, many still signed up for 1 yr • Women also fought- Margaret Corbin of PA, accompanied husband when he joined Cont. Army, he died in battle she took his place, Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley, gained nick name “Molly Pitcher”, Deborah Sampson disguised herself and joined up
New York • Summer of 1776, Brits sent 32,000 troops to NY, Gen. William Howe • Washington had just under 20,000, fought at Battle of Long Island, Continentals suffered a serious defeat, Nathan Hale a teacher working as a spy for Cont. Army, hanged but said” I only regret that I have but one life to lay down for my country” • Americans ran out of supplies, some no socks, shoes or jackets, needing blankets, Washington retreated to Manhattan, Then was chased across NJ into PA • Winter set in army dwindled, some completed terms of service and went home, others ran away • Washington needed more troops asked Cont. Cong. to enlist Africans, South concerned for revolts
Patriot’s Push Back • As need grew some states ignored ban on blacks, RI raised a Black regiment, by the end of war every state except SC had Blacks, possibly 5,000 fought in revolution • Brit army settled in NY for winter of 1776, leaving some troops in NJ, Trenton and Princeton, did not expect a fight • Washington crossed Delaware River on Christmas night 1776, 2,400 troops, attacked 900 drunk Hessians, reinforcements sent by Lord Cornwallis, Washington stayed away, drove Brits out of Princeton
British Plan • Brits plan for 1777, take Albany, NY and control the Hudson River, separating New Eng. and Middle Colonies, 3 prong attack, Ge. Burgoyne would lead 8,000 sth from Canada, Col. St.Leger would come est from Lake Ontario. Gen. Howe would move nrth from NYC, meet at Albany and destroy Patriots • Howe planned on taking Philly before marching to Albany, in Sept. 1777 defeated Patiots at Brandywine creek , and Paoli, forced Cont. Cong. to flee, Oct. Washington attacked at Germantown, forced to withdraw, Howe decided to spend winter in Philly, delaying Albany campaign • 8/1777 St. Leger defeated at Ft. Stanwix, led by Benedict Arnold • Burgoyne captured Ft. Ticonderoga in July, then tried to travel with 30 wagons of luxury goods through dense forest, Americans chopped dwn trees to slow even more, sent 800 troops and Indians to capture Bennington, VT, uniforms easy targets, Green Mtn Boys attacked, short on supplies and men Burgoyne retreated to Saratoga, NY
Saratoga • Burgoyne expected help from wst and sth, Howe not coming , St. Leger defeated • Gen. Horatio Gates blocked his path sth , Burgoyne surrounded by army 3x’s his size, attacked on 10/7/1777, lost Americans played “yankee doodle” while 5,700 Brit troops handed over their weapons • Howe returned to NYC and resigned replaced by Gen. Henry Clinton