Rome’s Beginnings Mrs. Saitta
Location: • Middle of the Mediterranean Sea • Long narrow peninsula – boot shaped • Toe of boot points towards Sicily • Two mountain ranges: • in the north the Alps • the Apennines which run the length of the boot from north to south
Landscape of Italy • Similar to Greece but Apennines not as rugged • Think about how the mountains affected the way the Greek city-states developed… • People of Italy were not split up, or isolated • Better farmland – could support its population
Latium • Little is known about first people • Latin speaking people built city of Rome on plain of Latium • 15 miles up Tiber • 7 hills • What would the benefits be of building Rome here?
Legends of Rome Legend of Aeneas Legend of Romulus and Remus From the Roman poet Virgil in The Aeneid Trojan hero Sails across Mediterranean with group of followers after the fall of Troy Land mouth of Tiber, warfare, marriage to local king’s daughter Unites Trojans and Latins Supposed descendents of Aeneas Rescued by a she-wolf Found and raised by a shepherd. Quarreled over a wall, Romulus killed Remus Names Rome after himself
Historians not sure of origin of Rome Latin people lived in the area @1000 B.C.E. Built huts, herded sheep, banded together for protection Community became Rome Rome Actually…
Greek influence • Many Greeks lived in southern Italy. Why? (hint we studied this…) • Greeks taught Romans how to grow olives and grapes • Romans adopted Greek Alphabet, architecture, literature and gods
Etruscans • North of Rome is Etruria • Inhabited by Etruscans • After 650 B.C. moved south and took control of the area around Rome and most of Latium
Etruscans Change Rome • Changed Rome from village to a city • Laid out wood and brick temples/public buildings around a central square • Connected city with streets • Romans copied style of dress – Togas (loose garments draped over one shoulder) • Army becomes model for Roman Army.
End of Etruscan rule….. The Republic • Ruled for 100 years • Tarquins (a ruling family) grew more and more cruel • Roman rebelled, set up a republic • A Republic is a form of government where the people have power and the people choose a leader to govern them.
How the Republic grows… • Next 200 years, Romans fought numerous wars. • By 332 B.C.E., defeated the Latin, next Etruscans, and finally the Greeks in southern Italy in by 267 B.C.E.. • Controlled most of peninsula of Italy
What aided the Romans in conquering their neighbors? • Excellent soldiers • Harsh discipline • Deserters killed/ rebels punished • All males who owned land had to serve in army • Originally fought like Greeks, slow and hard to control • reorganized into smaller group units/Roman Legion
Roman Confederation • Built permanent military settlements in conquered areas • Roads between towns • Roman Confederation- system to rule conquests : • Full citizenship given to some, especially the Latin • They were able to vote, serve in government and treated the same as citizens under the law
Allies • Others given status of Allies. • Free to run own local affairs • Pay taxes • Provide soldiers for army • Loyal allies could become citizens • How would this way of dealing with conquered people help Rome to control its Republic?
Roman Legions • Each legion had 5,000-6,000 men • Legio - mean “levy” conscription – compulsory enlistment • Cohorts – basic tactical unit • Ten cohorts in a legion@ 500 men
Further divisions…… • Each cohort is divided into 6 centuries of 80 -100 men • Commanded by a centurion • Each century was further divided into 8-10 legionaries or a contubernium.