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  1. Interaction Paradigms Dewan Tanvir Ahmed, PhD University of Ottawa

  2. Interaction Paradigms • Large Scale Computing • Personal Computing • Networked Computing • Mobile Computing • Collaborative Environments • Virtual Reality • Augmented Reality Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  3. Interaction Paradigms Large circles represent principal paradigms. Oblong shapes represent convergent paradigms. Words without surrounding shapes represent specific system architectures (sometimes used for a paradigm reference, as in desktop computing for personal computing). Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  4. Large Scale Computing • The original mainframe computers were large-scale computing machines, referred to as hosts • They resided in a central location • They were accessed by remote alphanumeric terminals equipped with keyboards • The terminals were referred to as “dumb terminals” • These systems are also referred to as host/terminal systems Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  5. Large Scale Computing (Cont’d) • Super Computers • These highly specialized machines crunch large amounts of data at high speed • as in computing fluid dynamics, weather patterns, seismic activity predictions, and nuclear explosion dynamics. • Supercomputers are used for the very high speed backbone (vBNS) connections that constitute the core of the Internet. National Center for Super Computing Applications (NCSA) Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  6. Personal Computing (Cont’d) • Desktop Computing The Alto, developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in 1973, was the first computer to use a GUI that involved the desktop metaphor: pop-up menus, windows, and icons The Xerox Alto computer (1973) Courtesy Palo Alto Research Center. Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  7. Personal Computing The Xerox Alto mail program (1973) The Xerox Alto computer (1973) Courtesy Palo Alto Research Center. Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  8. Personal Computing • Personal-Public Computing • Public Access Computing – The information divide • Public Information Appliances Automated teller machine with touchscreen. Courtesy Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  9. Networked Computing • Scope • WAN – Wide Area Network • A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that spans a broad area any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries. • Protocol: Frame relay, HDLC, PPP, ISDN • MAN – Metropolitan Area Network • spans a city or a large campus • Protocol: ATM, FDDI, Broadband Wireless MAN standard (WiMAX) • LAN – Local Area Network • Spans Building, apartment. • Exp: Ethernet • PAN – Personal Area Network • a computer network used for communication among computer devices, including telephones and PDAs, in proximity to an individual's body. • USB, Bluetooth, IrDA, ZigBee • Wired - Wireless • Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11x) • Bluetooth • 3G Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  10. Mobile Computing • Mobile computing technologies comprise a very diverse family of devices: • Laptop computers • Tablet computers • Game players • MP3 players • PDAs • Cell phones Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  11. Mobile Computing Desktop metaphors do not translate well to mobile devices. MP3 player Laptop computer Courtesy Tablet computer Cell phone Hybrid desktop/mobile environments can afford optimal interaction efficiency. Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  12. Mobile Computing • Mobile devices can be connected to global positioning systems (GPS) • These have touchscreens and voice interaction to alleviate potential visual attention problems during driving On-board navigation system. Courtesy Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  13. Mobile Computing • Mobile devices can offer situational computing that can take advantage of location-specific information through location-based mobile services (LMS). • LMS can be beneficial for location-sensitive advertisements, public service announcements, social interactions, and location-specific educational information. Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  14. Collaborative Environments • Networks allow members of a group to interact with other members on shared files and documents. • This creates a virtual space where people can collaborate and work collectively. • Groupware Networks facilitate collaborative activities. Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  15. Collaborative Environments • Network can support collaborative work by facilitating tasks • Communication • Coordination • Organization • Presentation • Computer-mediated communication (CMC)/ Computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) • It describes the way computers are used to support group communication • Share information across a network or distributed group members • The system can be augmented by audio and video … ! Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  16. Collaborative Environments • Remote interaction • Synchronous • Video conferencing • Instant messaging • Chat rooms • Remote access white boards • Asynchronous • Recommender systems • recommend information items (movies, TV show/episode, VOD, music, books, scientific literature such as research papers etc. • Bulletin boards • Email Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  17. Embodied Virtuality (EV) Some of us use the term “embodied virtuality” to refer to the process of drawing computers out of their electronic shells. The “virtuality” of computer-readable data—all the different ways in which it can be altered, processed and analyzed—is brought into the physical world. (Weiser, 1991, 95) So, Embodied Virtuality strives to integrate computer functionality with the real world Many counter questions: • How do we disperse computing functionality throughout the environment? • What form should EV computing take? • What kind of interface does it require? • How much control should we retain, and how much should be automated? Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  18. Embodied Virtuality (Cont’d) Portable/Manual: Cell phones, mp3 player, PDA Manual/Fixed: ATM, Kiosk Automated/Fixed: Alarm sensors, industrial hazard detectors Portable/Automated: Situated sensors, Car transceivers for toll payment Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  19. Contemporary Approaches in EV • Emerging fields • Ubiquitous/pervasive computing • Ambient Computing • Invisible/transparent computing • Wearable computing Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  20. Embodied Virtuality - Ubiquitous/pervasive • Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) is a post-desktop model of HCI in which information processing has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. • Instead of having a desk-top or lap-top machine, the technology we use will be embedded in our environment Source: Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  21. Embodied Virtuality - Ubiquitous/pervasive • Where/When • Cars regualating the break, steering, engine function • Web enabled cell phones, PDA • MMOG (massively multiplayer online games) on devices • Embedded technology • Mission critical tasks - Air traffic control • Devices like cameras, video recorders, and musical instruments are becoming “smart” through the introduction of embedded chips. • The essence of UbiComp is that • To fulfill their potential computing technologies must be considered a part of the fabric of our lives and not something that resides in a gray box. Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  22. Embodied Virtuality – Ambient Computing • Ambient intelligence refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people. • Ambient computing • The concept of a computational grid that is seamlessly integrated into our physical environment • Lighting systems • Heating systems • Electrical systems • Smart environments that sense and recognize people • Face recognition Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  23. Embodied Virtuality - Invisible/transparent • The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it. (Weiser, 1991, 94) • Facilitation of tasks without involving the manipulation of computer interface. • Two approaches • Make the interface simple and intuitive • Like you are driving a car • Remove the interface entirely Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  24. Embodied Virtuality - Invisible/transparent (Cont’d) • Information Appliances • PDAs, BlackBerry® devices, digital cameras, MP3 players, and portable game players. An appliance specializing in information: knowledge, facts, graphics, images, video, or sound. An information appliance is designed to perform a specific activity, such as music, photography, or writing. A distinguishing feature of information appliances is the ability to share information among themselves. (Norman, 1998, 53) A BlackBerry type of device. Dewan Tanvir Ahmed Courtesy of

  25. Embodied Virtuality - Wearable • Wearable computers are computers that are worn on the body. • The underlying principle of wearable computing is the merging of information space with work space - humionics. • The goal of humionics is to create an interface that is unobtrusive and easily operated under work-related conditions. • Traditional I/O technologies are generally inadequate Wearable systems must take advantage of auditory and haptic as well as visual interaction. Wearable computing systems require multimodal interfaces. Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  26. Embodied Virtuality - Wearable • Application • Behavioral modeling, health monitoring systems, information technologies and media development. • Example - Zypad • Features: hands-free operation, robust wireless capabilities, and built-in GPS tracking, this wearable computer serves as a tool for Emergency Search and Rescue, Healthcare, Homeland Security, Law Enforcement, Logistics, Transportation, and Defense applications. Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  27. Virtual Reality • The goals of the virtual reality (VR) community are the direct opposite of the goals of the EV community. • EV strives to integrate computer functionality with the real world • VR strives to immerse humans in a virtual world Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  28. Virtual Reality • Virtual reality (VR) refers to computer-simulated environments that can simulate physical presence in places in the real world, as well as in imaginary worlds. (Wiki) • Nonimmersive - screen-based, pointer-driven, three-dimensional (3D) graphical presentations that may involve haptic feedback • Immersive VR environments are designed to create a sense of “being” in a world populated by virtual objects. • To create a convincing illusion, they must use as many human perceptual channels as possible. Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  29. Virtual Reality - Immersive CAVE automated virtual environment at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). Sketching a virtual world in the VR design tool ShadowLight. Photographs and ShadowLight application courtesy of Kalev Leetaru. Sensics piSight Virtual Reality (VR) system. Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  30. Augmented Reality • Augmented reality (AR) offers • a live direct or an indirect view of a physical, real-world environment • whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input, such as sound or graphics. • The goal of AR is to create a seamless integration between real and virtual objects in a way that augments the user’s perception and experience. • Criteria for AR environments • The virtual information must be relevant to and in sync with the real-world environment. Dewan Tanvir Ahmed

  31. Thanks! Dewan Tanvir Ahmed