Capitalization Rules of Capitalization: 1. Capitalize the first word of every sentence.
Capitalization 2. Traditionally, capitalize the first word of a line of poetry
Capitalization 3. Capitalize the first word directly quotedin a sentence. Ex. Sally wondered, “Where did I put my backpack?”
Capitalization 4. Capitalize the first word of the salutationand closingof a letter Ex. Dear Amy, or Sincerely,
Capitalization 5. Capitalize the pronoun I and interjection O
Capitalization 6. Capitalize the names of persons and animals (includes titles, abbreviations, and relations) Ex. Mr., Dr., Lewis F. Powell Jr., Uncle Jeff
Capitalization 7. Only capitalize school subjects if it is a language course or a course with a number Ex. English, Spanish, Biology 1
Capitalization 8. Capitalize first, last & all important words in titlesand subtitles Ex. The New York Times, The Declaration of Independence
Capitalization 9. Capitalize proper nouns and proper adjectives Includes: geographical names, organizations, teams, government bodies, institutions, historical events and periods, special events, holidays and other calendar items, nationalities, races, religions, followers, and special celebrations involved, names of businesses and brand names of products, ships, trains, memorials, monuments, awards, buildings
End Marks Period. Ends a statement (Also used in abbreviations) Question Mark? Ends a question Exclamation Point ! Shows strong emotion/shouting
Quotations Quotations Usage: 1. Enclosestitles and subtitles of shorter pieces of work such as articles, essays, short stories, poems, songs, TV episodes, and chapters of books. “How I Met Your Mother” “Marigolds” 2. Encloses a direct quotation or exact words that a person says. Ex. Ben said, “The car needs an oil change.”
Capitalization & Quotations A direct quotation usually begins with a capital letter. Ex. My mother said, “Clean your room.” When an interrupting expression divides a quoted sentence into two parts, the second part begins with a lower case letter. Ex. “I wish,” she said, “that we went to the same school.”
Punctuating Quotations A direct quotation can be set off by the rest of the sentence by a comma, question mark, or an explanation point, not not a period. Ex. Delores explained, “You know how much I like my chicken,” as she passed her plat for more. Ex. “When will we be leaving?” asked Tony. Ex. The plumber shouted, “Shut off the faucet!” when water sprayed out of the pipe.
Punctuating Quotations Periods and Commas- placed inside quotation marks Ex. “I haven’t seen the move,” remarked Jean, “but I understand that it’s excellent.” Semicolons and Colons- placed outside quotation marks Ex. Socrates once said, “As for me, all I know is that I know nothing”; I wonder why everyone thinks he was such a wise man.
Punctuating Quotations Question Marks and Exclamation Points- inside if it is part of the quotation itself. Ex. “Is it too cold in here?” asked Tom. Question Marks and Exclamation Points- outside if it is not part of the quotation. Ex. It is not an insult to be called a “bookworm”!
Writing Dialogue When writing in dialogue, begin a new paragraph every time the speaker changes. Ex. “What time will Sally be coming?” asked Jane. “She said around four,” said Joan. “That isn’t for another three hours!” “I know, but we said that we would wait for her.” “Do you think that we could just call her? We could have her meet us there. This way we can get there early and save some seats.” “That is actually a good idea. Let’s do it.”
Commas Commas can be used in four major ways -When listing a series -With independent clauses -With intro. elements -With non-essentials and interrupters
Serial Commas Separate items or actions or modifiers written in a series. Lists have 3 or more items or actions Two items are a pair, not a list and need NO comma (Exception: two equal modifiers before a noun with No conjunction). Not every sentence with and or or has a serial comma
Practice Ex. Can you imagine your father selling you for a tablecloth, a hen, and a handful of cigarettes?- The Tale of Desperauxby Kate DiCamillo Practice: I don’t like rap, but I do like OutkastKanye West and Black-Eyed Peas. Ex. My mother opened every window, waxed the wooden furniture, and sprayed room freshener in every corner.-My Father’s Summers by KathiAppelt Practice: What I wasn’t used to was having his smell back the smell of his Camel cigarettes his Old Spice aftershave and the polish he used on his boots.
Difference between Pairs and Series Pair: I used a paintbrush and a pencil to create the effect. Series: I used a paintbrush, a pencil, and charcoals to create the effect.
Commas with Independent Clauses Use a comma & coordinating conjunctions to join two independent clauses. Conjunctions are connectors that link equal words, phrases, or clauses. Coordinating conjunctions cue readers in on the relationships between ideas.
Commas with Independent Clauses FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)- are the coordinating conjunctions, but JUST the presence of a FANBOYS word does NOT mean a comma is NEEDED! Not needed Ex. My brother and I planned a family vacation. Needed Ex. Every day was a happy day, and every night was peaceful. –E.B. White’s Charlotte’s Web
Practice with Compound Sentences Separate thoughts make up compound sentences. Practice: Combine the sentences into a compound sentence. My sister took the last Kleenex from the box. I had to blow my nose on toilet paper.
FANBOYS for, so- cause/effect relationship and- joins things alike or similar—continues the thought but, yet- shows contrasting relationship or- indicated a choice between things or ideas nor- continues a negative thought
Comma Splice Leaves out the conjunction creating a run-on sentence Ex. Felicia balled up the napkin in her fist, she didn’t say anything. Fixed Ex. Felicia balled up the napkin in her fist, but she didn’t say anything.
Commas with Intro Elements If a sentence begins with a phrase or clause or transition, you probably need a comma to separate it from the rest of the sentence that follows. Use a comma after an introduction or opener. Ex. If you can’t annoy somebody, there is little point in writing.- Kingsley Amis’ The King’s English
More Examples Looking back on it now, I doubt there was any way I could have imagined what lay ahead. –James Howe’s Howliday Inn Stacy, shut the door. (direct address nouns) Oh, I can’t believe you said that about him. (Interjections at the start of a sentence)
AAAWWUBBIS When the sentence begins with AAAWWUBBIS, you’re most likely going to need a comma there. (after, although, as, when, while, until, because, before, if, since) Ex. When we went to the movies, Because the weather was rainy, If you want to be bored to tears,
Non-essential & Interrupter Commas When a group of words interrupts a sentence, it needs to have commas on both sides. Use two commas to set off no-essential information (PHRASES) Use one comma if it is at the end of a sentence. How do you know if it is non-essential? Take it out! (Does the sentence still make sense?)
Examples I even coaxed Rowdy, my bluetick hound, into helping me with this monkey trouble. –Wilson Rawls’ Summer of the Monkeys I was stretched out on my back, my paws dangling at my sides, thinking nothing more of the meal I’d just eaten and the chocolate I hoped still lied ahead. Only Howie, who was growling as he chewed vigorously on a rawhide bone, seemed unable to relax. –James Howe’s The Celery Stalks at Midnight Mom ran the Rise & Walk Thrift Sanctuary, a used-clothing shop in the church basement that operates on donations. –NacyOsa’sCuba 15
Visual Patterns For Comma Usage Sent n c , , and e Ex. Pick up your shoes, your jacket, and your fast-food trash from my floor. Serial Commas
Visual Patterns For Comma Usage F A N B OYS Sentence , Sentence Ex. You can study all night, or you can get some rest. Compound Sentences
Visual Patterns For Comma Usage , , Sent ence interrupter Ex. Miss Appell, our English teacher, says we were too noisy. Interrupters
Visual Patterns For Comma Usage , Sentence Opener Ex. Since the test is Tuesday, I should start to review. Openers
Visual Patterns For Comma Usage , Sentence Closer Ex. Kari stared into space, wishing she was on a tropical island. Closers