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Carbohydrate

Carbohydrate

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Carbohydrate

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  1. Carbohydrate

  2. Carbohydrate

  3. Carbohydrate Can Be Divided up Into 3 Groups ¶ Sugar Glucose + Sucrose · Starch ¸ Cellulose

  4. Why do we need carbohydrate?

  5. Carbohydrate Compounds contain C, H, O with general formula of Cm(H2O)n All have C=O and -OH functional groups Classified based on Size of base carbon chain Number of sugar unit Location of C=O group Stereochemistry

  6. Types of Carbohydrates Classification based on the number of sugar units in the total chain Monosachcarides Single sugar unit Disaccharides Two sugar units Trisachcarides Three sugar units Oligosaccharides up to 10/13/ sugar units Polysaccharides > 13 sugar units Chaining relies on the glycosidic bonds

  7. Fischer Projections • Used to represent carbohydrates (chiral carbons) • Places the most oxidized group at the top (C1) • Uses horizontal lines for bonds that come forward • Uses vertical lines for bonds that go back

  8. D and L Notations • By convention, the letter L is assigned to the structure with the —OH on the left • The letter D is assigned to the structure with —OH on the right

  9. D and L Monosaccharides • Stereochemistry determined by the asymmetric center farthest from the carbonyl group • Most monosaccharides found in living organisms are D D D L

  10. Aldose

  11. Ketone Sugars Ketones are not easy to oxidize except for ketoses Enediol reaction -- All monosaccharides are reducing sugars

  12. Ketose Pure Fruits Sweetly Taste

  13. Conformation Intramolecular cyclization Anomer Mutaroation Furanose & pyranose

  14. Cyclization of D-glucose a-D-glucose b-D-glucose

  15. Intramolecular Cyclization Chain can bend and rotate

  16. Fisher Projections

  17. Haworth Formulae

  18. Stereo Projections

  19. Chair Presentations

  20. Pyranose: Chair, Boat, Half-chair, Skew. Furanose: Envelope, Twist.

  21. COMPLICATION OF CARBOHYDRATE • Number of Carbon Atoms • The Location of Carbonyl Group • The Configuration of Sugar (D or L) • The Size of Ring (5, 6 or 7) • The Configuration at Position 1 (a or b) • The Connectivity between Sugar Units • Derivatives (oxidation, reduction, deoxy, various group)

  22. CARBOHYDRATE ISOMERS