AP Literature • Warm Up: “The Habit of Perfection” (10 min.) • Read Poem and Answer Multiple Choice Questions • Discuss: Characteristics of Romanticism • “Chalk Talk” Conversation Using HW Notes • Connections: The Gothic Tradition • Romantic Writers’ Fascination w/ Sublime & Grotesque Homework: Written Response (Jane Eyre as Gothic Literature)
Chalk Talk • The goal of “chalk talk” is simple: have a silent conversation for a few minutes. • When we begin, any student may approach the SMARTBoard, grab a light pen, and add a note, question, or idea related to the prompt. • There is no talking during this activity, and only one student may approach the board at a time. • After a few minutes, we will see what kind of words we have up there. These will provide the spark for class discussion.
Romanticism • 1785-1830 (roughly) • Emphasis on inner feelings • External objects are only given meaning after the author has projected their own imagination and feelings onto them • Spontaneous: art should arise from impulse and be free of rigid structures
Romanticism • Sometimes referred to as “nature art;” however, most saw nature as a stimulus to the most beautiful of activities: thinking. • Goal of romantic writers = arouse in the mind of reader a sense of wonder and awe (sublime = awe inspiring)
Romantic Checklist • Examination of inner feelings • Idealistic • Interested in mysterious/supernatural • Developed new forms of expression • Romanticized the past • Tended toward spontaneity • Appreciate folk traditions • Felt that nature should be untamed
Elements • Sublime: induces awe/wonder in reader • Supernatural: opened up to the modern world the realm of mystery and magic, in which materials from ancient folklore, superstition, and demonology are used to suggest to the reader the sense of occult powers and unknown modes of being
Image Review • Examine the following image closely. • Write a short response describing the mood of the image. Be sure to reference specifics in the picture that help create the mood. • When done describing the image, explain in your own words what you understand the word “gothic” to mean. • Be prepared to share.
Gothic In Literature
What Does “Gothic” Mean? • When applied to literature, gothic has been used to both refer to a genre characterized by: • A general mood of decay • Action that is dramatic and generally violent or otherwise disturbing • Loves that are destructively passionate • Settings that are grandiose, if gloomy or bleak
The Gothic Novel • The Gothic Novel arose in the late 18th century England and remained popular into the 19th century throughout Europe and America. • Romantic Writers found in the Gothic a freedom of spirit, variety, and mystery that meshed well with their own emphasis on individuality, imagination, and sublimity. • Dark, mysterious castles chock full of secret passageways (or rooms!) and supernatural phenomena are common elements used to thrill the reader.
Gothic Hero/Heroine • Gothic heroes and heroines tend to be equally mysterious, with dark histories and secrets of their own. • The Gothic hero is typically a man known more for his power and charisma than for his personal goodness. • The Gothic heroine’s challenge is to win his love without being destroyed in the process.
Other Defining Features… • Cast of off-kilter characters • Broken bodies, minds or souls • Used to symbolize problems created by the established pattern • Used to question established pattern’s morality and ethical justification • The “Innocent” is a common character, who may or may not be “broken,” but who often acts as a redeemer for others
Other Features… • Freakishness • In most Gothic stories, there is an important character who is set apart from the world by in a negative way by a disability or an odd, and often negative way of seeing the world. • Outsiders • Gothic novels are filled with characters who are set a part from the established cultural pattern, but who end up being heroes because their difference allows them to see new ways of doing things that ultimately help to bring people out of the “dark.”
Other Features… • Imprisonment • This is often both literal and figurative. • Many Gothic tales include an incident where a character is sent to jail or locked up. • There are also Gothic characters that live in fate's prison. • Violence • Racial, social and class difference often create underlying tension in Gothic novels that threatens, and usually does, erupt in violent ways
Jane Eyre • Many critics have applied the term Gothic Novel to Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre. • In what ways does Jane Eyre fit the definition? • Create a list of textual evidence to defend Jane Eyre’s reputation as a Gothic Novel. • You should reference at least five (5) specific details from the text and explain. • Finish Response For Homework!