Basics of the periodic table An introduction to the periodic table
What is the periodic table??? • It is a table which shows the 117 elements that scientists have discovered. • The periodic table is arranged such that: 1. A higher atomic weight than the one on its left. 2. Similar chemical properties to other elements in the same column.
Information on the periodic table • The first periodic table was devised by Dmitri Mendeleev and published in 1869 and only had 65 elements • 117 elements • 9 classifications of the 117 elements
9 classifications • Alkali Metals • Alkali Earth Metals • Transition Metals • Other Metals • Metalloids
9 Classifications continued 6. Other Non Metals 7.Halogens 8. Noble Gases 9. Rare Earth Metals
Some facts about the different groups • Group 1 • Alkalis • all have the same number of outer electrons • similar chemical properties.
Some facts about the different groups • Group 2 • Alkaline Earth Metals • 2 electrons • Examples: Barium, Calcium
Some facts about the different groups • Group 3 • Transition metals • 3 electrons on the outside • Rather reactive
Some facts about the different groups • Group 4 • Other Metals • 4 electrons • examples: C, Pb
Some facts about the different groups • Group 5 • Metalloids • 5 electrons • An example is nitrogen
Some facts about the different groups • Group 6 • Other non-metals • 6 electrons • Examples: Oxygen, selenium, sulfur
Some facts about the different groups • Group 7 • Halogens • gain an electron • negatively charged ions • Each ion has the same electron configuration as the noble gas in the same period. • chemically stable than the elements from which they formed.
Some facts about the different groups • Group 8 • Noble gases • Not reactive • Atoms of these gases strongly prefer their own electron configurations • Featuring a full outer shell of electrons
What is an element??? • material which cannot be broken down using chemical means • Cannot be changed using chemical means • basic chemical building blocks of matter.
How to read the atomic numbers • The numbers at the top tell you the total number of neutrons and protons. • The number at the bottom left hand corner represents the number of protons/ electrons as an element has the same number of protons and neutrons.
Some of the elements we should know • Iron • Symbol: Fe • Transition metal • Uses: outdoor seating, decorative fences, arbors, trellises, skillets, Dutch ovens, cake pans, cornbread trays and a number of other forms of cooking hollow ware
Some of the elements we should know • Sulfur • Symbol: S • Non-metal • Uses: meteorites, volcanoes, hot springs, and as galena, gypsum, Epsom salts, barite
Some of the elements we should know • Aluminum • Symbol: Al • Other metals • Pure aluminium is soft and lacks strength, but alloys with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, and other elements have very useful properties.
Some of the elements we should know • Zinc • Symbol: Zn • Transition metals • Did you know? zinc-deficient animals require 50% more food to gain the same weight of an animal supplied with adequate amounts of zinc.
Some of the elements we should know • Hydrogen • Symbol: H • Non-metal • Did you know? Hydrogen is the lightest gas. Hydrogen gas was used in lighter-than-air balloons for transport but is far too dangerous because of the fire risk (Hindenburg).
Some of the elements we should know • Carbon • Symbol: C • Non-metals • It is found in abundance in the sun, stars, comets, and atmospheres of most planets.
Some of the elements we should know • Chlorine • Symbol: Cl • Halogens • Chlorine is a respiratory irritant.
Some of the elements we should know • Oxygen • Symbol: O • Non-metal • Oxygen in excited states is responsible for the bright red and yellow-green colours of the aurora. About two thirds of the human body, and nine tenths of water, is oxygen.
Some of the elements we should know • Nitrogen • Symbol: N • Non- metal • When nitrogen is heated, it combines directly with magnesium, lithium, or calcium. When mixed with oxygen and subjected to electric sparks, it forms nitric oxide (NO) and then the dioxide (NO2).
Acknowledgements • http://www.chemicool.com/ • http://www.google.com.sg/imglanding?q=periodic%20table&imgurl=http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/&h=480&w=580&sz=19&tbnid=G4wY8RtD2Q3AMM:&tbnh=111&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dperiodic%2Btable&hl=en&usg=__KR-goEH-LEQbPghRgsxInCdc4-A=&ei=yhTIS4fJDZTDrAfczdG5CQ&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=4&ct=image&ved=0CBYQ9QEwAw&start=0
Acknowledgements • http://www.webelements.com/aluminium/ • http://www.webelements.com/sulfur/ • http://www.webelements.com/zinc/ • http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-some-uses-for-iron.htm • Chemicool Periodic Table. 4/16/2010 http://www.chemicool.com/ • http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryfaqs/f/element.htm • http://www.webelements.com/chlorine/ • http://www.webelements.com/nitrogen/ • http://www.webelements.com/oxygen/ • http://www.ucc.ie/academic/chem/dolchem/html/elem/group.html