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The Enlightenment (1660-1780)

The Enlightenment (1660-1780)

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The Enlightenment (1660-1780)

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  1. The Enlightenment(1660-1780) The Restoration The Age of Pope The Age of Johnson

  2. Politics and Government • Return of a Stuart king – Charles II (from exile in France) • James II (bro of Charles II) to throne in 1685 – openly favored Catholicism and alliances with Catholic European powers, expelled in 1688 in the “Glorious Revolution” (no bloodshed) • Mary (James’ daughter) and William (1689-1702)

  3. Anne (Mary’s sister) – childless (1702-1714); crown could not pass to James Stuart, son of dead and exiled James II : Parliament had passed law saying monarch must be Protestant • House of Hanover from Germany - George I, II, III(1760-1820)

  4. Rise in power of parliament • Two party system Whigs – represented mercantile & financial interests, cities and towns, progressive interests; opposed any interference by monarchy; power consolidated by Robt. Walpole as Prime Minister (satirized by many writers: ex. Pope, Johnson, Swift, Fielding) Tories – represented country squires; favored older traditions

  5. Life in 18th Century • Plague in London (1665) – Samuel Pepys diary • Great Fire of London (1666) – rebuilt under direction of architect Christopher Wren • London – urban sprawl, population 5.5 million

  6. Few people could vote – some large towns had no representation in Parliament • Political power centered in England Union Act of 1705 – created Great Britain Ireland treated as colony for economic gain

  7. Royal Society estab. (1662) – scientists, philosophers, scholars Sir Issac Newton – math, astronomy William Harvey – blood circulation John Locke – Essays concerning Human Understanding • Religion – dominated by Anglican Church Many great writers were dissenters: Pope, Dryden, Defoe, Blake Evangelical Movement – led by John and Charles Wesley, called for spiritual rebirth, ministered to working poor

  8. Social Hierarchy • Opposition to universal education – it would elevate humble people above their station • England had only 2 universities (Oxford and Cambridge); Scotland had 4 • Women – haphazard education, barred from univ. and all professions • Clothing for rich – elaborate, often French design Men: powdered wigs, colored & satin trimmed coats & vests, silk stockings, buckled shoes Women: immense hairdos, enormous hoop skirts, delicate shoes, carried to social events in sedan chairs

  9. Marriage – economic arrangement uniting families & estates Novels: Fielding’s Tom Jones & Richardson’s Clarissa depict matches parents forced on their daughters • Coffee Houses - popular w/middle class; often met by professions (ex. writers, financiers, lawyers, etc. ) • Creation of Post Office • Taxes on newspapers • Royal African Company (1672) – slave trade • Bank of England estab.

  10. The Arts • Portraits – Reynolds, Gainsborough (Blue Boy) • Caricatures and cartoons – *Addison and Steele’s newspapers • “Georgian” style buildings • Fine wood furniture – ex, Chippendale, Hepplewhite, Sheraton • Garden and Landscape designs • Music – from the Continent

  11. Literature • Theatres – reopened by Charles II, for the nobility & the rich, women had roles (Nell Gwynn) comedies of manner • Lyric Poetry less popular • Greater interest in problems of Society • Writers dependent on patronage – paid by sinecures (gov’t, jobs), later book publishers and sellers • Lending libraries (for a fee) • Poetic style: mix of ornate diction & colloquialisms, popularity of couplets • Prose style: closer to everyday speech

  12. Important Writers • John Bunyan – Pilgrim’s Progress (allegory) • John Dryden – essayist and poet • Samuel Pepys – diary of London fire • *Daniel DeFoe – essayist Robinson Crusoe • *Jonathan Swift – Gulliver’ s Travels, “A Modest Proposal” • *Alexander Pope – satire, epigrams, “The Rape of the Lock” (mock heroic) • Samuel Johnson - dictionary, biographies, essays • Robert Burns – Scottish poet • William Blake - poetry

  13. Language • Rules of grammar- there won’t be no double negatives!; to rudely split infinitives is wrong; the end of a sentence is not where a preposition goes at. • Dictionary – 1721, Johnson’s dictionary • Progressive formof verbs. I am explaining this right now. • Use of “you” instead of “thou” except in poetry &religion • Use of “who” and “which” instead of “that” • Exclusion of many words fr. other languages, excluding Latin and Greek. • Many words still pronounced in several ways ex. food, blood, wood ex. heaven, seven, forgiven ex. obey & tea; name & stream • Orthography – more standardized