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Environmental Sciences: Towards a Sustainable Future Chapter 5

Environmental Sciences: Towards a Sustainable Future Chapter 5

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Environmental Sciences: Towards a Sustainable Future Chapter 5

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  1. Environmental Sciences: Towards a Sustainable Future Chapter 5 The Human Population: Demographics

  2. Ch. 5 Outline • The world population explosion including the United States. What about your state? • Different population growth rates in developed and developing nations. • Consequences of exploding populations. • Dynamics of population growth.

  3. As of Oct 27, 2009….World Population: 6,793,208,538U.S. Population: 307,796,653 • Where do you find the greatest population densities?

  4. Major Shifts in Sustainabilitynatural systems displaced by human ones • Paleolithic Time of early humans (40,000 to 10,000 yrs ago)  hunter-gatherers, settlements were small and short-lived • Neolithic Revolution (12,000 yrs ago in Middle East after colder and drier climate occurred)  development of animal domestication and agriculture, more reliable  efficient and abundant food source allowed for specialization of labor and permanent settlements  permitting better care and protection leading to greater population growth • Industrial Revolution (1800’s to present)  modern science and technological advancements energized by fossil fuels, first coal then oil and gas  expanding economies, global commerce, larger cities, exploitation of natural resources and POLLUTION

  5. The Next Revolution…a return to GREEN • Environmental Revolution (1960’s…NOW?)  revolution implies an overthrow of “business as usual” to sustainable development, finding ways to limit degradation of natural resources and keep ecosystem cycles intact

  6. The Human Population Explosion 9,000 human beings added to the planet every hour

  7. World Population Growth and Percent Growth Rate

  8. In America West Germany Africa 14 5 258…wow! Average Number of Children, Grandchildren, and Great Grandchildren

  9. Developing country:generally used to describe a nation with a low level of material well being (low GNI, low GDP non industrialized) • The World Bank considers all low- and middle- income countries as "developing". In 2008, countries with Gross National Income (GNI) per capita below US$11,905 were considered developing. • Developed country: used to describe countries that have a high level of development /industrialization (high GNI or high HDI) • World Bank considered high income developed countries with GNI per capita above US$11,905 in 2008. • Some use other criteria such as Human Development Index (HDI), or Kofi Annan, former UN Secretary General, defined a developed country as “one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment."

  10. Developing Vs. Developed Countries Who is mostly contributing to the planet’s growing population?

  11. Growth of Cities Within the last year, over half of the world’s population now live in “cities” (including shanty towns)

  12. Reasons for the Human Population Explosion…better health conditions • Causes of disease recognized • Improvements in nutrition • Discovery of antibiotics • Improvements in medicine • Increase in number of women who actually reach child-bearing age • Short doubling times in some countries

  13. A % Survival B Birth Death Age Changing Human Survivorship Curves: Went From A to B

  14. Consequences of Exploding Populations deforestation resource depletion loss of agricultural land biodiversity disease pest resistance population migration irrigation/water shortages Wetlands degradation More Population Causes

  15. Basic Human Needs are already limited • Drinkable Water • Edible Food • Safe Housing • Health Care • An Education • A Job

  16. Developing or Developed Nations? • High fertility rates • High consumptive lifestyles: use 80% of world’s wealth • Intense poverty • Eat high on the food chain

  17. Developing or Developed Nations? • Long doubling times • High environmental degradation • Twenty percent of the world’s population

  18. Global Conditions for a Sustainable Population • Lower fertility rates • Improve the lives of people • Protect the environment

  19. The Meaning of Absolute Poverty • Malnutrition • Illiteracy • Disease • Squalid surroundings • High infant mortality • Low life expectancy 17 million children under 5 die each year

  20. Resolving the Problems of Population Growth and Land Availability • Subdividing farms • Opening more land for agriculture • Move to cities • Engage in illicit activities • Move to other countries How do these “solutions” aggravate the problems?

  21. Population Profiles

  22. Population Profiles Fertility Rate < 2 Fertility Rate > 2

  23. Projected World Population: Three Different Fertility Scenarios

  24. Population Projections for the United States

  25. Population Projections: Developing Nations

  26. The Demographic Transition

  27. Demographic Transition Comparisons

  28. 4 Phases of Demographic Transition Phase I  primitive stability‖  high CBR, high CDR Phase II  epidemiologic transition  declining CDR Phase III  significant population growth  declining CBR from declining fertility rates Phase IV  ―modern stability‖  low CBR and CDR • developed countries have completed the demographic transition • developing countries are in Phase II and III

  29. Calculating Fertility Rates and Doubling Times (CBR - CDR)/10 = Rate of Increase or decrease in population as a percentage (because now the rate would be per 100 instead of per 1000) 70/ Rate of Increase = Doubling Time (in yrs)

  30. Calculating Fertility Rates and Doubling Times: Practice 0.6% 117 0.2% 350

  31. 3 Important American Environmental Organizations • 1886 Audubon Society founded • 1892 Sierra Club incorporated (John Muir as president) • 1935 The Wilderness Society founded

  32. Please view your American Environmental Movement Timeline document Add these 3 international events to your timeline… Dec 2007 IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change • Released 4th climate change summary for policy makers scientifically showing that “warming of our climate system is unequivocal” and mostly caused by “anthropogenic GHG concentrations”

  33. Dec. 7-20th 2009 COP15 UN Climate Change Conference in Denmark • The “Copenhagen Protocol”?? What will we decide to do to mitigate or correct global heating? 1975 CITES agreement • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species restricted/regulated international trade of species