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Pre-Class: Samskara. What are samskara ? Identify six samskara connected to birth, marriage, and death? Are there any similarities to the other religions we have discussed in class?. Pre-Class: Ganges Article. Article 1: Why do Hindus dispose of bodies in the Ganges River? What city?
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Pre-Class: Samskara What are samskara? Identify six samskara connected to birth, marriage, and death? Are there any similarities to the other religions we have discussed in class?
Pre-Class: Ganges Article Article 1: Why do Hindus dispose of bodies in the Ganges River? What city? Why hasn’t the government fined or punished those who deposit bodies, ashes or soap into the Ganges? List three clean-up projects of the Ganges Action Plan. Article 2: Has the Ganges action Plan been successful? Support with evidence Website
Hinduism Religious Facts Website
Hinduism • World’s most ancient living religion #14 • 3rd largest religion – most live in India #3 • SanatanaDharma, The Eternal Way, referred to as Hinduism in the West #2 • Began in India, from the Aryan beliefs with No Founder
Hinduism • Developed over thousands of years. • A philosophy of how to live your life. • In general Hinduism means: #4 • People living near the Indus River • Used by Europeans, 19th century, to describe the many religious practices of India • Polytheistic – • Has millions of Gods that reflect the complexity of life. #5
Brahman • Other deities (Gods) represent aspects of Brahman (they come from the One Supreme Being) #6 • A universal soul, present everywhere. #6 • Universal soul, One Divine Being • The Upanishads describe Brahman as "the eternal, conscious, irreducible, infinite, omnipresent, spiritual source of the universe of finiteness and change." Brahman is the source of all things and is in all things. • Atman: individual soul
The Trimurti of Hinduism #5 VISHNU BRAHMA SHIVA The Preserver The Creator The Destroyer
Hindu Gods #5 • Brahma- is the creator. • Vishnu- is the preserver or protector. • Shiva- is the destroyer. • These 3 Gods create and maintain the world we live in. • Trimurti- representation of the 3 main Gods of Hinduism.
Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Brahma, the creator god Avatar: an incarnation of a Hindu deity in human or animal form, especially one of the incarnations of Vishnu such as Rama and Krishna
Avatars • an incarnation of a Hindu deity in human or animal form • especially one of the incarnations of Vishnu such as Rama and Krishna
Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Vishnu, the preserver god Incarnates as ten avatars (descents) including: Rama (featured in the Ramayana) Krishna (featured in the Mahabharata) (Each shown with his consort, Sita and Radha, respectively)
Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Shiva, god of constructive destruction(the transformer) Appears as Shiva Nataraj,lord of the dance of creation… and with his wife, Parvati, and son Ganesha(the elephant headed remover of obstacles)
What about the goddesses?Devi – the feminine divine Lakshmi, goddess of good fortune, consortof Vishnu
All these deities are but Manifest forms (attributes and functions) of the impersonal Brahman #6
Gods Mono or polytheistic?
There are three main gods, a triumvirate, which are believed to be all part of Brahman • Brahma = the creator • Vishnu = the preserver • Shiva = the destroyer • All three are responsible for the creation, upkeep and destruction of the world.
Brahma = the Creator • Has four heads and it is believed the four Vedas came from these heads. • Some believe the four varnas came from a different part of Brahma’s body. • His consort (companion) is Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge. • Often holds a lotus – the symbol of creation. • Keeps track of time on a string of beads.
Preserver and protector of the universe. Role is to return to earth in troubled times and restore the balance of good and evil. Has been reincarnated nine times. Believe he will be reincarnated one last time close to the end of the world. Associated with light, especially the sun. Represented with a human body, with blue skin and four arms. Each hand holds an object he is responsible for. Vishnu = the Preserver
In Vishnu’s hands: Conch shell (produces the “om” sound, the primeval sound of creation) Discus: symbolizes the mind Lotus flower: glorious existence and liberation Mace: mental and physical strength Vishnu Continued
Shiva = the Destroyer • Role is to destroy the universe and re-create it, paving the way for beneficial change. • Destruction is not arbitrary but constructive. • Seen as the source of good and evil.
Shiva Continued • Has a 3rd eye = represents wisdom and insight • Cobra necklace = power over the dangerous creatures in the world. Also presents destruction and rebirth (shedding its skin) • Vibhuti (three white lines on the face with white ash) = represent his pervading nature, superhuman power and wealth. Cover his third eye. • Trident = represents the three functions of the Hindu triumvirate.
Ganesh/Ganesha • He is the Lord of success and destroyer of evils and obstacles. • He is also worshipped as the god of education, knowledge, wisdom and wealth
Ganesh Is Fresh 1st verse Ganesh is so fresh chillin on his throne / surrounded by incense fruit and gold with a heap of sweets piled in his bowl / he guards the gate and protects the threshold when your blessed by Ganesh than you can travel / on a sacred journey to an inner temple he paves the path that leads to the soul / & he’s known for removing all obstacles now some may think it’s illogical / a myth or it’s just philosophical but Ganesh makes everything possible / because elephant power’s unstoppable chorus Jaya Ganesha, Jaya Ganesha, Jaya Ganesha Om 2nd verse To the god of all wisdom loved by all children / known for blessing homes that we live in to the lord of all creatures with divine features / inspiring the minds of all truth seekers to the son of Shiva and Parvati / with an elephants head and a fat belly with a snake for a belt to hold up his pants / he rides on a mouse and he loves to dance with a lotus unfolding inside one of his of his hands / & an axe to attack all ignorance a broom to remove all hindrance / and a noose to reduce all selfishness he writes the pages that the sages chant / droppin ancient vedic science so we can comprehend / all the many ways that we can transcend singin Jai to Ganesh he’s a yogi’s best friend chorus Jaya Ganesha Jaya Ganesha Jaya Ganesha Om
Ganges River #9 • Most sacred feature of the Indian landscape. • It’s believed that the river came down from heaven to cleans the earth from sin • Purifies the soul • It’s getting polluted, but people believe the river will take care of itself because it’s Holy.- reading
Varanasi #8 • Most sacred city of Hindu, located on the Ganges River • According to Hinduism – founded by Shiva • Oldest, continuous center for Hindu life • Place of Pilgrimage – • dying there ends the cycle of reincarnation
IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF HINDU BELIEFS • Dharma • duties and obligations, religious or social. • Rules of a caste. • Guide of conduct or proper path. • Karma- • Actions or deeds. • Your actions affect your future lives. • Your present life is a result of your past actions. • Reincarnated into a higher caste and close to moksha • Your caste is a result of karma so it is inseparable from Hinduism #15
“Big Idea” - Dharma • The ultimate moral balance of all things. There is a divine order to the universe and an individual's life. • The concept of dharma requires all people to do their duty, depending on their status in society. The higher the status, the higher the expectations. • Idea of duty above consequences. Promises must be kept at all price. • Dharma in all areas of life: family, social and religious.
“Big Idea” - Karma • Karma is the force generated by a person’s actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life. Every action has consequences. If you live a balanced and moral life (and not disturb the Dharma) you will be happy and move onto a higher level in your next life. • A person’s current status is a reflection of their past lives. Therefore, higher status people are entitled to more privileges because they have lived better past lives. • Ensures full accountability for every thought, action and word.
“Big Idea” – Caste System (Varnas) • Varnas or castes - Social custom brought by the Ayrans to India. Would become known as the caste system (jati) – officially weren’t called castes until the 16th century by Portuguese traders • Four main castes (although each caste is also sub-divided) • Based off the belief that hierarchy is natural and social structure if part of the divine intention for natural order • Also based largely on the idea of purity as related to profession
Varnas (Castes) • Each Varna has specific duties and rights • Each Varna dictates professions – only certain varnas can work in certain fields. People cannot work outside of their varna. • Each Varna has its own dietary restrictions based on the level of “purity” of the food.
IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF HINDU BELIEFS • Samsara- • reincarnation or rebirth of the soul in various forms. • Cycle of death and rebirth. • What your soul is reborn into is governed by karma. • Moksha- • ending the cycle of reincarnation, Liberation • The spiritual goal of all Hindu’s. • Freeing the soul from the body so that the soul can unite with Brahman. • Samskaras- • rituals connected to Birth, Marriage, Death
“Big Idea” – Reincarnation (Samsara) • Represents the cycle of life, death and rebirth in which a person carried his or her own karma. Each life represents an opportunity for balance. • The ultimate goal in reincarnation is to be united with Brahman (God). Hindus believe all living beings seek to achieve this goal. • Places an emphasis on individual spiritual development to better attain the release from the life and death cycle. • Created a reverence for all forms of life.
“Big Idea” - Moksha • Ultimate goal, state of changeless bliss. • Achieved by living a life of complete religious devotion and more integrity without any interest in worldly things. • When a person reaches Moksha, the cycle of reincarnation ends.
How do Hindus worship? #10 • Worship Gods through their images • Pray and give offerings at a home shrine or a Temple • Yoga - Meditation • There are four different paths to achieve Moksha which a Hindu can take.
How do Hindus worship? #10 • Yoga • There are four different paths to achieve Moksha which a Hindu can take. • The Hindu can choose one or all four of the paths they are: 1. The path of knowledge - Jnana-Yoga • Spiritual knowledge -leading to the knowledge of the relationship between the soul (atman) and God (Brahman) 2. The path of meditation - Dhyana-yoga • The idea is to concentrate so you can reach the real self within you and become one with Brahman 3. The Path of Devotion - Bhakti-yoga • Choosing a particular god or goddess and worshipping them throughout your life in actions, words and deeds. 4. The path of good works - Karma-yoga • This involves doing all your duties correctly throughout your life
Temple Worship • Temples provide an atmosphere conducive for spiritual progress • Centers of social and cultural activities • Provide a place for collective worship and prayers The Brihadeshwara temple, also known as Rajarajeswaram, India's largest temple
Yoga means “union” Important part of Hindu’s daily life as they strive for their union with Brahman Goal is to leave behind earthy life and join Brahman in your mind “Big Idea” - Yoga
Sacred Texts • Hindu beliefs are recorded in the following sacred texts and are all part of the Vedas • Vedas – earliest Hindu scripture #7 • meaning Knowledge • Upanishad- summation of the Vedas • Introduced: karma, samsara and moksha. • Focuses on the relationship between the Brahman and atman. • Other Sacred Texts
Sacred Texts • Hindu beliefs are recorded in the following sacred texts and are all part of the Vedas • Ramayana-an epic poem, the hero is Rama. • A scripture that offers a hero as a model for the Hindu life. • The moral code of conduct, social duty. Rama with Sita on the throne, their children Lava and Kusha on their laps.
Sacred Texts • Hindu beliefs are recorded in the following sacred texts and are all part of the Vedas • Mahabharata- the world’s longest Sanskrit epic poem. • Contains many basic Hindu ideas. Its most important section is the Bhagavad-Gita(the song of the Lord): • conversation between Krishna and Arjuna as Arjuna prepares to go into battle • Dealing with struggle without concern • Spiritual perfection
Sacred Texts Mahabharata Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra Krishna, Arjuna at Kurukshetra, 18–19th century painting.
Sacred Texts Bhagavad-Gita Bhagavad Gita, a 19th-century manuscript Illustration of the battle of Kurukshetra, Arjuna (far right), with Krishna as the charioteer, is battling the Kauravas as the gods look down
Other aspects of Hindu beliefs • Puja- • daily worship, offerings to the Gods. • Guru- • a spiritual leader. • Mandir- • a Hindu temple. • All life is sacred- • The cow is considered sacred- it is the most giving of all animals – gives more than it takes #12 • Some Hindu’s are vegetarians Vedas: Rain is like cow’s milk and the sun is its calf” • Ragas- • sacred music to focus spiritual devotion