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Hominid Evolution

Hominid Evolution

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Hominid Evolution

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  1. Hominid Evolution

  2. Origins of Hominids • Most crucial change was Bipedal Locomotion • Other changes include • Expansion of the brain, larger birth canal, reduction of face, teeth and jaws • All of these occurred 2 million yrs. After bipedalism • Journal Entry 1

  3. Why did Bipedalism occur? • See farther • Carry food • Carry tools and weapons

  4. Australopithecines • First definite Hominids • Genus of Hominids until C. 2 Mill yrs. Ago • Somewhere b/t 3 and 4 mill. yrs ago. • At Laetoli footprints found proving bipedal locomotion • Although Bipedal, still may have spent time in trees for sleep and shelter

  5. Types of Species • Australopithecus afarensis • Australopithecus africanus • Australopithecus robustus • There are more  Think of hominids as a Bush, not a timeline!

  6. Australopithecus Afarensis • Debate as to whether diff. species or not • Footprints found to prove bipedalism • Between 3 and 4 million years ago

  7. Australopithecus Africanus • Jaw of ape • Teeth of humans • S-shape spine similar to man

  8. Afarensis vs. Africanus • Features of skull, teeth, and jaws that are less apelike in africanus • Some debate different species

  9. Australopithecus robustus • 2-1 million years ago • Larger molars and premolars • Smaller canines • Well-developed cranial crests and ridges • Much heavier • Taller: 4.5- 5 ft. tall

  10. Ancestor? • Australopithecus robustus is not thought to be an ancestor to the Homo species • Lived during same relative time as Homo species

  11. Changes • Expansion of brain • Reduction of face, teeth, and jaws • Babies born less mature at birth • Journal Entry #2

  12. Expansion of the brain • Had relatively small cranial capacities • Reason? • Why would brain size have increased? (Think Evolution types) • Possible reasons: • Increased as a result of tool making

  13. Reduction of Face, Teeth, and Jaws • Lower face not as protruding • Reduction in size of • Face • Cheek bone • Jaw

  14. Now on to species of Homo • Different ideas on how Homo genus evolved • Some say from Africanus • Some say from Afarensis • About 2 millions years ago

  15. Homo habilis • Larger brain absolutely and relatively than Australopithecus • Found in East Africa • Slightly Larger and more developed brain • Stone tools?

  16. Homo erectus • 1.6 to 1.3 millions years ago • Skull generally long, low, and thickly walled • Flat frontal face • Prominent brow ridges • Relatively small teeth modern arrangement

  17. Cont… • Fully developed vision area of brain • Larger areas of speech, sensory, memory and motor areas of brain • Neck down, almost same as Homo sapiens

  18. Fire • Fire first appears 1.5 mill. Years ago • Only able to spread out after development of fire • Journal Entry

  19. Stone tools • Acheulean “hand axe” • 1.5 mil. Years ago • Used for butchering, digging, pounding • Toolmaker first shaped the core, and prepared a striking platform at one end • Knock off flakes

  20. Hunting • Homo erectus began to hunt medium sized animals • Spears, stone throwing, and fire • Needed to plan and work in groups

  21. Neanderthal • Becoming Human