Labor Unions Why now?
Essential Questions • Why did labor unions become more popular during the late 19th-early 20th century? • What labor union was most successful, why? • What benefits did labor unions offer their members? • Be able to discuss major unions and strikes.
Early Unions • Molly Maguires(1875) • Mostly Irish-catholic coals miners • Group infiltrated by James McParland (Pinkerton detective agency) • Long Strike (1877)
Early Unions • Craft Unions – based upon specific job • Didn’t recognize some of the ‘new’ industrial jobs • Industrial unions – formed later in response because of the changing economy
Management vs. Labor “Tools” of Management “Tools” of Labor • “scabs” • P. R. campaign • Pinkertons • lockout • blacklisting • yellow-dog contracts • court injunctions • open shop • boycotts • sympathy demonstrations • informational picketing • closed shops • organized strikes • “wildcat” strikes
Knights of Labor Terence V. Powderly An injury to one is the concern of all!
Goals of the Knights of Labor • Eight-hour workday. • Workers’ cooperatives. • Worker-owned factories. • Abolition of child and prison labor. • Increased circulation of greenbacks. • Equal pay for men and women. • Safety codes in the workplace. • Prohibition of contract foreign labor. • Abolition of the National Bank.
Haymarket Riot (1886) McCormick Harvesting Machine Co.
American Federation of Labor • Samuels Gompers • President of American Federation of Labor
How the AFL would Help Workers • Catered to the skilled worker. • Represented workers in matters of national legislation. • Maintained a national strike fund. • Evangelized the cause of unionism. • Prevented disputes among the many craft unions. • Mediated disputes between management and labor. • Pushed for closed shops.
Homestead Steel Strike 1892 Henry Clay Frick The Amalgamated Association of Iron & Steel Workers
Homestead Steel Works, PA New steel production methods required less skilled workers AA union resented wage cuts Most organized and largest strike so far Strike failed, militia called in Fatally weakened AA Homestead Steel Strike
A “CompanyTown”: Pullman, IL
Pullman Cars A Pullman porter
Pullman Strike • Caused by wage cuts • American Railway Union, led by Eugene Debs • Rail road capitalists vs. Organized Labor • President Cleveland called in troops • Couldn’t interfere with delivery of mail
President Grover Cleveland If it takes the entire army and navy to deliver a postal card in Chicago, that card will be delivered!
Eugene V. Debs • Debs was tried and sent to jail • While in jail, he became a socialist after reading Karl Marx’s books • Will run for President five times as socialist candidate
Great Rail Road Strike • 1877 • Caused by companies reducing wages • Workers refused to work across 5 states • President Hayes called in troops, strike ended after 45 days.
Other Unions • I.W.W. – International Workers of the World/Wobblies • Led by Big Bill Haywood • All workers should be united together to abolish wage system • Lost popularity in the 1910s, and the 1950s due to anti-communist feeling throughout the country
United Mine Workers • “Mother Jones” • Mary Harris. • Organizer for theUnited MineWorkers. • Founded the SocialDemocratic Party in 1898. • One of the founding members of the I. W. W. in 1905.
The “Formula” unions + violence + strikes + socialists + immigrants = anarchists