Labor Unions • Labor Union: an association of workers who have united to represent their collective views for wages, hours, and working conditions
Collective Bargaining • When labor unions (workers) negotiate with management for better conditions
Strike! • An organized work stoppage arraigned by workers to get management to meet their demands.
What dangers did factory workers face? • Lung Disease • Burns • Death from Molten metal
Title: 2 boys and a horse in a coal mine, West VA. Photo by Lewis Hine October, 1908
American Federation of Labor (AFL) • In 1886, Samuel Gompers formed the AFL.
What methods did the AFL use? • Collective Bargaining (negotiate) • If that didn’t work--- • Strike! (work stoppage)
Sweatshop: • A workplace where people work long hours in dangerous conditions for low pay.
“Newsies” Below - Francis Lance, 5 years old, 41 inches high. He jumps on and off moving trolley cars at the risk of his life. St. Louis, Mo. Above - Out after midnight selling extras. There were many young boys selling very late. Youngest boy in the group is 9 years old. Harry, age 11, Eugene and the rest were a little older. Washington, D.C.
Working Conditions · Factory workers, miners and steel workers faced serious injury or death on a daily basis. · Children worked in many industries, doing dangerous work for low pay.
The bodies of seamstresses, who jumped from the factory floors of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company to avoid being burned alive, lie outside the factory.
Objective: To examine the growth of cities at the turn of the 20th century. Urbanization of Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Cities Grow • Factory jobs sparked an increase in the growth of cities after the Civil War. Ex.) 1890 – 1/3 of Americans lived in cities 1920 – 1/2 of Americans lived in cities
· Immigrants came to northern cities looking for work. New York City population, total and by borough, from 1790 to 2000. Figures in millions. Key:New York City The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island