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Sectionalism Continues

Sectionalism Continues

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Sectionalism Continues

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  1. Sectionalism Continues Industry – Textiles, machinery, farm equipment, etc Railroads connect the west and south Telegraph provided communication Agriculture – Rural societies Cotton, tobacco, rice Other raw materials Territories - Wilmot Proviso – CA, UT, NM free Broke the Missouri Compromise

  2. Threats of Secession resurface – Lack of enforcement of 1793 Fugitive Slave Act Frustration over California Texas/New Mexico border Calhoun outraged Compromise - Henry Clay proposes resolutions California = Free Utah and New Mexico decide own fate Settle Texas/New Mexico with $10 mil. No sale of slaves in D.C. Enforcement of Fugitive Slave Act

  3. Both Sides Take Issue – Daniel Webster – Not as a northerner, as an American John C. Calhoun – Felt the South was still being slighted Died two months later Vote denied Stephen Douglas – Took the package apart President Taylor dies, Fillmore backs plan Compromise voted into law

  4. Social Unrest Divides Further Fugitive Slave Act – Most felt too harsh No trial by jury No testifying on own behalf If you aided, $1,000 fine and/or 6 months Northern States challenge – Personal liberty laws – No imprisoning slaves Guaranteed trial by jury Expansion of Underground Railroad Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe

  5. Bleeding Kansas Popular Sovereignty – Division of Nebraska into two Strong anti-slavery in the north Maintain balance, repeal Missouri Compromise Kansas-Nebraska Act passed in 1854 The rush was on Violence erupts, both sides to blame John Brown and the Pottawatomie Massacre “Bleeding Kansas” may be the trigger of war Senate violence – Preston Brooks S and Charles Sumner N

  6. Political Turmoil Whigs – Divisions became clear because of region Winfield Scott – north, no FSA, no C.1850 Southern votes went to Franklin Pierce (D) Kansas-Nebraska Act both North and South leave party Nativism – Growing decent toward immigrants Order of the Star-Spangled Banner The American Party – Know Nothing Fear of growing Catholic influence

  7. Democrats – No fear of infiltration Courted Immigrants Chose James Buchanan as candidate Free-Soil – Opposed expansion of slavery Helped to express northern opposition to slavery with 10% of vote 1848 Liberty Party – Divided previous elections and lost those elections for Whig candidates Abolitionists opposed, “a party to keep free soil, not to set men free” Republicans – Democrats and Free-Soilers join forces Opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, wanted Missouri Compromise John C. Fremont chosen as Northern candidate in 1856 Southerners favored Millard Fillmore – cost the election James Buchanan Wins What it meant… 1. Democrats had a national force, with careful choice 2. Know-Nothings were loosing power 3. Republicans emerge as a rising political force 4. The Nation was torn, and though one candidate won, there was no unification

  8. Secession Republicans prepare – Lincoln nominated to run in Illinois Looked to oppose Buchanan, perceived as weak The Build Up – Dred Scott – • Slave from Missouri, owner had traveled • Owner dies, Scott claims that he had been free due to where he had lived • Court rules, slaves don’t have the rights of free men and he lived in Missouri at start of suit • Missouri Compromise Unconstitutional – interferes with property ownership rights • Southerners claim victory, Northerners disbelief • The way is clear for the expansion of slavery • Opposition to slavery unites under Republican Party

  9. Kansas – Still divided – proposed pro-slavery constitution Rejected Buchanan supported, obligation to southerners Douglas – focused on popular sovereignty Revote… rejected Democrats begin to divide further 1958 Election for Illinois Senate seat – Republican Lincoln Democrat Douglas Lincoln – Immorality of slavery Labor based in greed Believed legislation only would end slavery Douglas – No moral issue in slavery Labor unsuitable for prairie farming Popular Sovereignty would slowly diminish slavery in America Freeport Doctrine – Lincoln proposed that Dred Scott decision made Popular Sovereignty null Douglas implied that legislators could not enforce, and therefore have sovereignty Douglas won the seat…

  10. Harpers Ferry – John Brown reignites anger Study of foreign slave uprisings Lobbied money from abolitionists Armed 21 men, attacked federal arsenal Held hostages hoping slaves would help, none did Troops kill 10 (Robert E. Lee) Tried for treason, failed planning Many supported his cause, though only in morality Brown Hung for Treason Both sides have passionate reaction over issue

  11. Presidential Election of 1860 – • Lincoln chosen by Republicans, possibly due to the fact that he had not had much chance to anger anyone on either side, or within his party • Douglas chosen by Northern Democrats • John Breckinridge, V.P. by Southern Democrats • Constitutional Union Party chose John Bell Lincoln wins with NO southern votes, bad news? South Carolina secedes – Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas follow suit Confederate States of America were formed – Adopted new constitution that protected slavery Hampered unity by allowing too much independence Jefferson Davis elected president Buchanan, still president, declares illegal but not much could be done as his power had faded The Question of War was answered when Lincoln took Power