Muscle Injuries*Risk Factors*Preventative Measures SHMD 249 2/05/2013
Risk Factors Extrinsic Risk Factors Something external to the body that can cause injury Intrinsic Risk Factors A physical aspect of the athletes body that can cause injury
Pg 260-262 Extrinsic Risk Factors Inappropriate coaching or instruction • Coaches: • Give incorrect instructions - which lead to injury. • Must have in-depth knowledge about sport & be up-to-date to maintain highest & safest standards. • Must be able to communicate effectively. • Current rules/regulations must be interpreted correctly & appropriately enforced.
Pg 260-262 Extrinsic Risk Factors Incorrect Advice on Technique • PE teacher/trainer/coach gives guidance on specific sport skills techniques. • If coach does not correct technique at right time, sport participant will adopt bad habits (skill level & performance) = injury. • Example: weightlifting & back injuries from poor technique.
Pg 260-262 Extrinsic Risk Factors Environmental conditions • Environment: the area in which the sport is performed. • Including: field/hall, playing surface, lighting & temperature. • Environment in which sport is performed can have a big impact on sustaining injuries. • Example: • Poor lighting = player misjudging attacking/defensive moves & injuring themselves or another player. • Wet surface = player more likely to slip = injury.
Pg 260-262 Extrinsic Risk Factors Other sports players • Some sports (contact sports) are more susceptible to incurring injuries as rules allow for tackles, scrums (rugby) etc. • contact sports: few bruises from tackling or being tackled. • Non-contactsports: injuries from a foul tackle (soccer) or accidental collisions.
Pg 260-262 Extrinsic Risk Factors Equipment, clothing and footwear issues • Always use equipment needed to play sport correctly. • Example: if javelin/shot-put/discus not held/thrown correctly = serious injury to themselves/other people. • Some sports require protective clothing. • Example: shin pads for football, gloves & helmet for cricket etc. • Other sports need clothing which is very flexible and needs to allow full range of movement. • Example: gymnastics. If restrictive clothing is used which limits movement, could cause injury.
Pg 260-262 Extrinsic Risk Factors Equipment, clothing and footwear issues • Essential to use correct footwear for correct surface. • Specialized footwear for all sports, made to be supportive to player & totally suitable for surface required for sport
Pg 260-262 Extrinsic Risk Factors Equipment, clothing and footwear issues • However, footwear may still be the cause of injury. • Example: studs plant the foot in the ground, so if the person is turning on a planted foot they can twist their knee. • Incorrect footwear = injury. • Example: marathon runner needs a very cushioned shoe to absorb impact of constant running.
Intrinsic Risk Factors Inadequate warm-up • Very common cause of sports injury. • Warm-up prepares body & mind for exercise to come. Gradually takes body from non-active state to being ready for exercise. • Will vary from person to person, level of fitness, and the environment (cold surroundings = longer warm-up). Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors Inadequate warm-up • 3 components of Warm-up: • Get blood flowing more quickly around body to help warm-up muscles to make them more flexible. • Mobiliser: joints taken through full range of motion. • Main muscles to be used should be stretched. Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors Muscle Imbalance • One muscle in an antagonistic pair is stronger than the other. • Example:footballers who have strong quadriceps muscles, but weak hamstring muscles = knee injuries (when striker goes to score they over-kick which hyperextends knee = injury). Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors Poor Preparation • Players’ fitness levels specific to sport. • Poor fitness = increase risk of injury, as they become tired develop poor sport techniques. • Must also acclimatize (train in) to environment in which competition will take place (hot/cold). Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors Postural Defects • Some people are born with postural defects e.g. one leg longer than the other, or their spine having the wrong curvature. • = more strain on one side of the body = more susceptible to injuries after long periods of exercise. • Postural defects can also occur due to incorrect training techniques over a long period of time. Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors Poor Technique • Related to an individual’s performance without the use of equipment (as opposed to incorrect techniques related to misuse of equipment). • Using incorrect technique over a long period of time may lead to injuries. • Example: swimming performing free-style incorrectly could be prone to shoulder or elbow injuries. Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors Overuse • Every time you exercise, you place your body under strain, thus the body needs time to repair itself afterwards. • Overuse injury occurs when you don’t give your body enough recovery time. • When you don’t rest & allow the body to repair itself, it gets weaker & eventually gets injured. Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors Age • Young children most common injuries occur due to falling. • Older children the most common injuries result from collisions and violence. • Older age groups and top-level sportsmen, there are fewer acute injuries and more overuse (chronic) injuries due to intrinsic factors. Pg 260-262
Preventative Measures • Improving & maintaining fitness. • Adequate & appropriate warm-up. • Wear protective clothing & appropriate shoes (stipulated by governing bodies). • Always remove jewelry. • Supervision by suitable qualified coach: • Correct techniques. • Design appropriate training programs for performers needs. • Ensure equipment & environment appropriate for training. Pg 260-262