Ecuador By: William Lo FYS: Life south of the border Professor Andy Lopez
The Flag • The Flag of Ecuador consist of three strips horizontal stripes. • The top color is yellow then middle is blue and the bottom strip is red. • The yellow strips is half the width of the other two colors • The yellow of the flag symbolizes the abundance and fertility of the nation’s land and crops. • The blue stands for the sky and the sea • The red symbolizes the blood shed during the war of independence by the soldiers and martyrs • The flag was adopted on September 26, 1860 making it one of the oldest flag in the world.
The Coat of Arms • The bird on the coat of arms is an Andean Condor, This native South American bird is on the flags of Chile, Bolivia and Colombia. • The four national folded flags act as supporters and between them are palm and laurel branches that symbolizes victory. • The Condor at the top serves as protection for the country under its outstretched wings. • The lictoral fasces represents dignity. • The background is the Chimborazo Mountain, highest peak in the Andes, symbolizes the brotherhood of the Sierra and the Coast
Coat of Arms Continued • Center of the flag is the steamboat “Guayas” the first boats in the Ecuador and one of the first in South America. • The ships mast is a caduceus (rod with two wings at the top and two snakes encircling it) and that symbolizes “trade and accord” • The band across the sky are the zodiacal signs for Aries, Taurus, Gemini and Cancer corresponding to March, April, May and June • The Center is the sun, an ancient Inca symbol. • The Ecuadorians has a special day for their flag call Jura a la Bandera” translated to be Pledge to the flag ( very proud of their flag) ( hold it in high esteem)
History • The earliest history of Ecuador would be that numerous tribes thrived in Ecuador for thousands years before it was conquered by the Incas. • By the end of the 15th century, despite fierce resistance by different tribes, Huaynac Capac, Tupac Yupanqui’s son conquered all of Ecuador. • The Inca rule for with a deep rooted tradition culture until the arrival of the Spanish in 1532. • The Spanish Conquistador Francisco Pizarro set out in his expedition and eventually conquered and colonized Ecuador. • The king of Inca at the time Atahualpa was forced to submit to the Spanish since he lost most his troops in a civil war with his brother.
History Cont • The Spanish controlled Ecuador was viewed as a property of the king as with the other states that the Spanish owned and on the king’s behalf, the Council of Indies carried out the law about life and living, while other departments carried out other daily life issues such as trade and law. • At the time when the Spanish were losing their grip in the colonies, the enlightenment as well as a failing economy began Ecuador’s path towards independence. • The first minor incident that spark the independence would be the multiple civil disturbances that was in the mountainous area. • Once again the criollos the pure blood Spanish decent were sick of the privileges of the peninsulares sough independence
A little bit more • In the years to follow, the criollos fought against the Spanish troops and they lacked the support to fight against the government. • Eventually there were a wide spread opposition within the rest of the Audience de Quito and the junta approved a constitution for democracy. • Soon the independent army within the independence movement started to grow and eventually a chain of battles started between the armies of Venezuelan Simon Bolivar and Palacios and Argentine Jose de San Martin. • Eventually the patriot army won under the San Martin Army and Ecuador became an independent province.
Post World War 2 and current times • In the post world war 2 era, the banana industry helped put the economy of Ecuador in semi state of stability. • Through out those years, there were many president and other candidate however economy though after World War 2 although in a state of stability eventually went in to a crisis. • It was the fault of Sixto Duran Ballen and his tough macroeconomics policy that forced the country into that state • Eventually Abdala Bucaram succeed the presidency and his policy was not much of a help to the people and as a result he was also replaced by Fabian Alarcon. • In May 1997 following the dismissal of Bucaram, the people of Ecuador called for a reform to the Constitution and the national assembly produced a new constitution.
Currently • Currently, the economy of Ecuador is improving and it is growing steadily • However there is still minor issues with dollarization and other social problems linking to that problem. • Also there has been minor cases of corruption within the government but it is currently either being taken care of or still under on going investigation.
Economics • The Ecuador economy is largely based on petroleum production. • Exports includes shrimps, bananas and other agricultural product. • Ecuador is the largest exporter of Bananas (936.5 million) • Ecuador is also a big exporter of shrimp (251 million) • Ecuador also have been exporting different products in the recent years with items such as flowers and canned fish • Ecuador history of economics has always been experiencing many ups and downs, however in the long term, Ecuador’s economy can be consider as a solid market but not very competitive.
Econ Continued • The total GPA as of 2007 estimates are 41.4 billion • Real annual growth rate would be around 3.9% since 2006 • Per Capita GDP $3,326 from a 2007 estimate. • Agriculture around 6.1 % of GDP in 2006 • Industry around 8.6% of GDP in 2006 with oil and mining reaching 24.3% in 2006 • Trades Exports 12.4% billion (2006) to the countries of United States, Latin America, European Union and Asia • As for Imports it is around 11.2% in 2006 as major importing countries are Latin America 39%, U.S. 23%, Asia 19% and EU 9%
Forms of Government • The Government type is a Republic. • The Constitution provides a four year term for the president vice president and members of Congress. • President may be re elected after an intervening term • Legislators may be reelected immediately. • Executive branch currently includes 24 ministries. • Province leaders people like ( councilors and mayors are directly elected by people.) • Congress meets throughout the year except for the recesses in July and December • Congress is divided into 20 seven member subject committee • Supreme Court are appointed by the Congress for life
Government Cont Members of the Constitutional Court serve for 4 years Current government members President: Rafael Correa Vice President: Lenin Moreno Minister of Foreign Affairs: Maria Fernanda Espinosa Minister of defense Wellington Sandoval Ambassador to the United States: Luis Gallegos Chiriboga Ambassador to the Organization of American States: Efren A Cocios Ambassador to the United Nations: Diego Cordovez Egers
Demographics/ People • Population estimated from (July 2007) 13,755,680 • Population Growth Rate 1.55% estimated (July 2007) Annual • Ethnic groups: Indigenous 25% mestizo (mix of Indian and Spanish) Caucasians and others 7% African 3% • Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic (95%) but there are also other religions • Spanish (Official) with other languages such as Quicha another dialect within Ecuador • Education is compulsory from age 6 -14 enforcement of the rules varies, Urban areas has more attendance than Rural areas but schooling attendance is through 6th grade.
Provinces • Capital City: Quito • 22 provinces • Azuay, Bolivar, Cañar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopazxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabí, Morona Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichinha, Sucumbíos, Tungurahua, Zamora Chinchipe.
Climate and Holidays • It was three mainland regions and the Pacific coast is tropical, the Andes highland is temperate and eastern side shares a jungle climate of the upper Amazon rain forest. • The location of Ecuador is near the equator and it does not experience variation of a change in daily light hours. • Some of its holiday independence of Quito and the Day of the dead.
Culture • Their culture is mainly influenced from the mestizo majority and they are mixed of European and Amerindians culture infused with African Elements. • The main Sport in Ecuador would be Soccer as it draws in majority of the population as well as the most watched sport in Ecuador • Food is diverse with pork, chicken, beef and guinea pig “cuy” • A popular food is in Ecuador is Guatita plate
Culture Cont • There are also wide variety of fruits, seafood (costal area for abundance) that are served with a variety of dishes. • Some typical dishes that are served in costal region are the ceviche, lomo saltado and churrasco
Culture Cont Aguardiente a licorice flavored spirit is a popular national alcohol Drinkable yogurt is also popular in Ecuador and is often consumed with pan de yuca, which is a bread filled with cheese. There are many modern painting and novelist that came from Ecuador and they have produced a wide variety of famous paintings as well as films. (Maldonado’s El Campo de Los Toros) (Museum of Anthropology and Contemporary Art)