Commas in a Series • Use commas to separate items in a series • The parents hid Easter eggs behind rocks, under picnic tables, and in the trees. • Use commas to separate two or more adjectives in a sentence • Hector was an inquisitive, intelligent student.
Compound Sentences with Commas • Use commas before conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so-FANBOYS) • Radha loves to play in chess tournaments, and she is an able player • Jeff finished his Chemistry project first, but his results were not reliable. • DO NOT CONFUSE COMPOUND SENTENCES WITH A SIMPLE SENTENCE WITH A COMPOUND VERB • Call wrote a short story, and he sent it to a magazine editor. (compund) • Cal wrote a short story and sent it to a magazine editor. (simple)
Commas with Introductory Elements • Use a comma after certain introductory elements • Yes, I’d like to see that movie. • Okay, let’s see it tonight. • Smoldering, the embers emitted a soft glow. • From all of the Mexican foods on the table, I took a small serving of each. • While the spectators cheered, Pasqual ran forty yards.
Commas with Interrupters • Use commas to set off an expression that interrupts a sentence. • Use commas to set off nonessential appositives and nonessential appositive phrases. • Paul Newman, the famous actor and director, is a great philanthropist. • Use commas to set off words in direct address. • As I have said before, Luisa, you are a fine writer. • Use commas to set off parenthetical expressions. • I believe, in fact, that this city needs more recreational areas.
Commas with Nonessentials • Use commas to set off nonessential clauses and phrases • Gloria, who lives next door, is my best friend. • Myron, sitting by the pond, thought about his future. • An essential clause or phrase is NOT set off by commas • The playwright whom I most admire is Lillian Hellman. • All people working in that factory assemble cars.