Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflict • Globalization implies decline of nationalism • global economy; growth of international political institutions; universal culture • But globalization occurring alongside nationalist and ethnic resurgence • challenge to states from below; identity based on ethnicity; new social movements • Is there a link between globalization and ethnic conflict?
Ethnic Identity and Nationalism • What is nationalism? • Modern concept dates from French Revolution • Nationalism can be positive and negative force • Types of nationalism • civic (or political) • based on political association; inclusive • ethnic • based on ancestral association; exclusionary
Causes of Ethnic Conflict • ancient hatreds • but ethnic identity legacy of colonialism • democratizing and weak states • democratization releases hostilities • weak states blame minorities for economic problems • state collapse and security dilemma • mutual fear + vulnerabilities of enclaves + offensive weapons • opportunistic politicians • nationalistic leaders appeal to ethnic impulses to mobilize support • false histories • ethnic myths create tensions among groups
Results of Ethnic Differences • Reconciliation; Separation; War • Can the international community help? • Burn baby burn? • Unacceptable due to: • internationalization; spillover • refugees • chain reactions • moral obligation • undermines credibility of intl. organizations
International Responses • Preventive measures • provide security guarantees; create representative political institutions; respect cultural diversity; develop better histories • Assistance during conflict • economic aid; humanitarian assistance • Strategies to end war and create peace • suppression of one side; reconstruction of ethnic identities; power-sharing; state-building; ethnic separation