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World War I

World War I

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World War I

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  1. World War I AP US Hamer (with help from Susan Pojer) February 18-24, 2011

  2. Causes of World War I

  3. Imperialism • Dominating another country or culture, usually for economic or military gain • Through the colony building practices of imperialism, the world was more connected as England was no longer a single country but the British Empire • Cause rivalries among countries • Caused many countries to increase the size of their navy

  4. Colonial Rivalries:Africa in 1914

  5. Colonial Rivalries: Asia in 1914

  6. The British Empire in 1914

  7. The Balkans in 1878

  8. The Balkan Wars: 1912-1913

  9. Nationalism • A devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation • This concept grew in the 1800’s • Caused rivalries among countries • Caused countries like Russia to feel a link to other countries with their Slavic culture like Serbia

  10. Militarism • The development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy. • Caused by the increase in imperialism and nationalism. • By 1890, Germany had the strongest army in Europe and England had the strongest navy.

  11. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.

  12. Alliances • By 1907, there were two major defense systems in Europe: • The Triple Entente (the Allied Powers) • France, Britain, and Russia • The Triple Alliance (the Central Powers) • Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy • (Italy left this group in 1915 and the Ottoman Turks joined in late 1914)

  13. Tensions & Conflicts: 1873-1914 Three Emperors’ League (1873)  Ger, A-H, Rus. Dual Alliance (1879)  Ger. & A-H Triple Alliance (1882) Ger, A-H, It. Reinsurance Treaty (1887)  restore relations between Ger. & Rus. Franco-Russian Alliance (1894) British-Japanese Alliance (1902) The Entente Cordiale (1904)  Br. & Fr.

  14. Tensions & Conflicts: 1873-1914 First Moroccan Crisis (1905) Russo-Japanese War (1905) The Anglo-Russian Convention (1907)  Persia Triple Entente (1907)  Br, Fr, Rus The Bosnian Crisis of 1908 Second Moroccan Crisis (1911) The First Balkan War (1912) The Second Balkan War (1913)

  15. Europe in 1914

  16. The Balkans in 1914

  17. The“Spark”

  18. Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family

  19. The Assassination: Sarajevo June 1914

  20. The Assassin: GavriloPrincip

  21. Who’s To Blame?

  22. The Dominoes Fall… Then: • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia • Russia felt that is should support its Slavic brother (Serbia) • Germany supported Austria-Hungary by declaring war on Russia and then France • Germany invaded Belgium and Great Britain declared war on Germany

  23. War in Europe • Soldiers mobilized quickly from all sides • Germany used the Schlieffen plan to move through Belgium to attack France • The plan was to finish France in 6 weeks and then focus on Russia • This didn’t work and Germany ended up involved in a 2 front war

  24. Multi Front War • The Western Front: • Trenches • Germany vs. England and France • More horrible than previous wars by a lot • The Eastern Front: • More mobile • Germany and Austria Hungary vs. Russia • Russia has a revolution and drops out in 1917 • Other Fronts: • Italy vs. A-H; Middle East; Africa; Colonial Holdings in Asia (Japan was an Allied Power)

  25. A Multi-Front War

  26. AmericaJoinstheAllies

  27. The Sinking of the Lusitania

  28. Election of 1916 • Democrats – Wilson again “He kept us out of war” • Republicans – Charles Evan Hughes • Progressives – TR refused to run and split Republicans again

  29. 1916 Election Results Democrat Woodrow Wilson 277 elec 49.2%pop Republican Charles E. Hughes 254 elec 46.1% pop

  30. The Zimmerman Telegram

  31. The Yanks Are Coming!

  32. Americans in the Trenches

  33. America Mobilizes for War

  34. 1. Enlistment

  35. The Most Famous Recruitment Poster

  36. Enlist Now

  37. For Big and Little Soldiers

  38. The Singingest War Ever!

  39. Results of Enlistment: 1917 – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units. 11,000 women enlisted in the navy and 269 in the marines – non-combat positions

  40. Expansion of the Federal Government

  41. Council of National Defense War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch Food Administration – Herbert Hoover Railroad Administration – William McAdoo National War Labor Board – W. H. Taft & Frank P. Walsh

  42. U.S. Food Administration Check out the amazing WWI food propaganda posters on my front wall!

  43. U.S. Food Administration

  44. U.S. School Garden Army National War Garden Commission

  45. U.S. Shipping Board

  46. U. S. Fuel Administration

  47. Results of This New Organization of the Economy? • Unemployment virtually disappeared. • Expansion of “big government.” • Excessive government regulations in economy • Some gross mismanagement overlapping jurisdictions. • Close cooperation between public and private sectors. • Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.

  48. Women during WWI

  49. YWCA – The Blue Triangle The Girls They Left Behind Do Their Bit!

  50. Munitions Work Although many more women went to work in munitions factories during WWII than WWI, they did make a significant contribution during the first World War.