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Illumination Lighting and Shading. CSE 470/598 Introduction to Computer Graphics Arizona State University. Terminology. Illumination: 1. luminous flux at any point on a surface exposed to incident light (direct or indirect) 2. A light source 3. Spiritual or intellectual enlightenment.

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## Illumination Lighting and Shading

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**Illumination Lighting and Shading**CSE 470/598 Introduction to Computer Graphics Arizona State University**Terminology**• Illumination:1. luminous flux at any point on a surface exposed to incident light (direct or indirect)2. A light source3. Spiritual or intellectual enlightenment**Terminology**• Illumination:1. luminous flux at any point on a surface exposed to incident light (direct or indirect)2. A light source3. Spiritual or intellectual enlightenment • Lighting:1. Method to provide artificial illumination2. Illumination3. The act of igniting**Terminology**• Illumination:1. luminous flux at any point on a surface exposed to incident light (direct or indirect)2. A light source3. Spiritual or intellectual enlightenment • Lighting:1. Method to provide artificial illumination2. Illumination3. The act of igniting • Shading:1. produce gradations of light or color2. process of assigning colors to pixels**Terminology**• Illumination: 1. luminous flux at any point on a surface exposed to incident light (direct or indirect)2. A light source • Lighting:1. The method used to provide artificial illumination2. Illumination • Shading: 1. produce gradations of light or color2. process of assigning colors to pixels But you’ll hear them interchanged frequently!**Lighting Overview**• CG lighting models • Elements of a lighting model • The Phong illumination model • Application of the Phong modelShading methods: flat, Gouraud, Phong • OpenGL aspects**CG Lighting Models: Global**Multiple interaction of light & objects Not real-time (yet) Examples:Raytracing, radiosity, photon mapping … From: http://jedi.ks.uiuc.edu/~johns/raytracer/raygallery/stills.html**CG Lighting Models: Local**Single interaction of light & objects Real-time Supported by OGL Example:Phong illumination model**Elements of a Lighting Model:**• light sources: number, type (desk lamp vs sun), color**Elements of a Lighting Model:**• light sources: number, type, color • reflections**Elements of a Lighting Model:**• light sources: number, type, color • reflections • material properties: reflection & absorption of light**Elements of a Lighting Model:**• light sources: number, type, color • reflections • material properties: reflection & absorption of light 3D feel, depth perception lighting model == approximation of real-world lighting!**Elements of the Phong Model**Light Source Properties All calculations based on idea thatRGB calculated independently**Elements of the Phong Model**Light Source Properties • ambient light > scattered > no detectable direction> backlighting in a room> can use to give a feel for the main color in a room> not dependent on viewpoint**Elements of the Phong Model**Light Source Properties • ambient light • diffuse light > directional > scatters equally in all directions once hits object> closest to the color of light > not dependent on eye position**Elements of the Phong Model**Light Source Properties • ambient light • diffuse light • specular light > comes from a detectable direction> bounces off object in preferred direction> plays a role in shininess> dependent on viewpoint diffuse and specular normally set the same**Elements of the Phong Model**Light Source Properties • ambient light • diffuse light • specular light • point source vs spotlight > point source: light emitted in all directions> spotlight: cone-shaped**Elements of the Phong Model**Light Source Properties • ambient light • diffuse light • specular light • point source vs spotlight • positional vs directional > positional: like a desk lamp> directional: like the sun all rays parallel when reach object> homogeneous coordinate to distinguish> location transformed by modelview matrix x y z w**Elements of the Phong Model**Material properties**Elements of the Phong Model**Material properties 1. reflectance of light a.ambient > amount of ambient light > most visible where no direct light hits**Elements of the Phong Model**Material properties 1. reflectance of light a.ambient b. diffuse > degree of scattering of light on surface> matte vs flat paint finish Color of object == ambient and diffuse (typically set the same)**Elements of the Phong Model**Material properties 1. reflectance of light a.ambient b. diffuse c. specular > degree of mirror-like quality> typically set to white so highlights produced are color of light**Elements of the Phong Model**Material properties 1. reflectance of light a.ambient b. diffuse c. specular d. translucent (opaque)**Elements of the Phong Model**Material properties 1. reflectance of light a.ambient b. diffuse c. specular d. translucent (opaque) 2. surface normals (unit length!)**Elements of the Phong Model**Material properties 1. reflectance of light a.ambient b. diffuse c. specular d. translucent (opaque) 2. surface normals 3. emissive color**Light & Material PropertiesExamples**increasing diffuse increasing ambient increasing specular**Light & Material Properties**absorption/reflectance influence on color Example: redbox will reflectred light absorbgreen and blue light**Notation: Light Properties**Model is computed independently forred, green, blue components Light’s luminance represented by boldface vectors: rgb Ld := diffuse Ls := specular La = := ambient 0 <= r,g,b <= 1 % of full intensity**Notation: Material Properties**Material’s properties represented by boldface vectors: ka := ambient kd := diffuse ks := specular r g b 0 <= r,g,b <= 1 Each vector takes form Represents % of reflection of light source’scorresponding property**Notation: Material Properties**Example material properties:**Geometry of the Phong Model**v p point on surface l (light – p) vector n normal to surface r reflection vector v (viewpoint– p)vector theta angle of incidence phi angle betweenvandr p Recall: angle of incidence equals angle of reflection All vectors normalized**Phong Model in OGL**vertex color = material emission‡ + (global ambient light scaled by material ambient property) + (ambient, diffuse, specular of lights, attenuated by material properties, viewer location and light position) for all lights ‡ at vertex**Diffuse Intensity Calculation**Lambert’s Law: light reflected is proportional to the cosine of the angle (theta) between surface normal n and light vector l theta is called the angle of incidence**Diffuse Intensity Calculation**Lambert’s Law: light reflected is proportional to the cosine of the angle (theta) between surface normal n and light vector l theta is called the angle of incidence theta=0 theta=60**Diffuse Intensity Calculation**Id := intensity of reflected diffuse light Id = kd x Ld x cos(theta) cos(theta) = l • n theta in [-90,90°] are of interest Id = kd x Ld x (max{l • n, 0}) “x” is not cross product3 separate scalar products Note: independent of viewer**Specular Intensity Calculation**Is := intensity of reflected specular light Basic idea: Is = ks x Ls x cos^s(phi) cos(phi) = v • r r = [2(l•n)]n - l phi = 0° full specular |phi| > 90° no specular (never compute angle directly) Focus of specular influenced by s Note: depends on viewpoint**Specular Intensity Calculation**s: Phong constant or “shininess” coefficient cos^s(phi) s=0.1 spread s=1 s=10 focus - 90° 90°**Specular Intensity Calculation**Blinn-Torrence modification –simplification for faster computation h = (l + v) / || l + v ||“halfway” vector cos(alpha) = h • n alpha ~ ½ phi so good approximation**Specular Intensity Calculation**Blinn-Torrence specular is implemented in OGL Is = ks x Ls x [max{h • n, 0}]^s if l • n < 0 then Is = 0 (no diffuse, no specular)**Attenuation Function**For a positional light ... d := distance of light source to vertex ogl choices for functions constant linear quadratic f(d) = 1/a f(d) = 1/(a + b*d) f(d) = 1/(a + b*d + c*d^2) inverse distance functions diminish intensity d increases for directional light, f(d) = 1**Spotlight Effect**c Cone-shaped spotlight defined by: gamma c position gamma “cut-off” angle d direction d sp := spotlight effect for a light source defined by angle between -l and d : cos(delta) = -l • d if delta > gamma sp = 0 else sp = (max{-l • d, 0})^p p influence similar to Phong constant; focus of intensity**Recall: Phong Model in OGL**vertex color = material emission‡ + (global ambient light scaled by material ambient property) + (ambient, diffuse, specular of lights, attenuated by material properties, viewer location and light position) for all lights ‡ at vertex**Putting It All Together**Phong Model in OGL I := intensity at a vertex e := emission intensity at a vertex Ma := ambient intensity for the entire model I = e + (ka x Ma) + for each light { [f(d) * spot * (Ia + Id + Is)] } Remember: boldface indicates r,g,b values**Shading Methods**Phong model color of vertex Shading methods color of triangle • Methods: • Flat shading • Gouraud (smooth) shading • Phong‡ Shading in ogl Recall: triangle normal .vs. averaged vertex normal ‡ confusing, but different fromPhong illumination model**Flat Shading**One normal per triangle Simulates viewer and light source distant then v, n, l same over triangle one shading calculation glShadeModel(GL_FLAT)**Gouraud (smooth) Shading**One normal per vertex Lighting calculation made at each vertex I1, I2, I3 Lighting at any point p within triangle v1, v2, v3 I = b1*I1 + b2*I2 + b3* I3 where b1, b2, b3 are the barycentric coordinates of p wrt v1, v2, v3 p = b1*v1 + b2*v2 + b3*v3 (b1 + b2 + b3 = 1)**Phong Shading**One normal per vertex ... however a normal is calculated for each rendered point p in triangle vertex normals n1, n2, n3 p = b1*v1 + b2*v2 + b3*v3 n = b1*n1 + b2*n2 + b3*n3 + normalize n! Calculate intensity at p wrt n Not considered a real-time algorithm therefore, not in ogl**Setting up the Lighting Model**OGL’s glLightModel has four settings … • local vs infinite viewer • one-sided vs two-sided • global ambient intensity • specular and texture interaction default: infinite affects highlights of specularinfinite: v vector for all vertices the same default: one-sided front-facingtriangle: on screen counterclockwise orientationone-sided = just shade front-facingtwo-sided = shade front and back-facing trianglesnice for inside and outside color effect default: none let’s revisit when wediscuss texture**OGL Calls**Basic steps ... • create, position & enable lights • viewer local or infinite? • front and back polygon shading? • set material properties Keep in mind that local viewer and lights require more computation Default camera: eye at origin and looking down –z axis (This is eye coordinates.) Reading: Chapter 5 !!**Controlling the Light’s Position**Light stationary: glModelMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW) glLoadIdentity(); modeling and viewing here glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_POSITION, position)

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