Main Idea The ancient Greeks made great achievements in philosophy, literature, art, and architecture that influenced the development of later cultures and ideas. Section 3: Greek Achievements • Objectives • How did Greek philosophy influence later thinking? • What types of literature did the Greeks create? • What were the aims of Greek art and architecture?
Philosophy comes from philosophia - “the love of wisdom” - emerged in 500s BC I. Greek Philosophy
A. Socrates (c. 470-399 BC) Socrates was interested in human life; believed learning came from asking questions Socrates (c. 470 - 399 BC "The unexamined life is not worth living."
A. Socrates Socratic Method - learning through questioning
A. Socrates Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David
B. Plato (c. 428-348 BC) Plato was a student of Socrates; wrote on variety of topics Plato believed that humans could not reach perfection
B. Plato Wrote The Republic - government should be led by philosophers
B. Plato Founded the Academy to make education more formal
C. Aristotle (384-322 BC) Aristotle studied at the Academy; applied philosophical principles to all knowledge Aristotle founded his own school - the Lyceum
C. Aristotle Emphasized using reason to learn about world, using logic to make inferences
II. Greek Literature Greeks excelled in poetry, history, drama The Trojan Horse Greek Theater
II. Greek Literature Hesiod, a poet, wrote about the works of gods and lives of peasants Bronze bust of Hesiod, 8th century BC
II. Greek Literature Lyric poetry dealt with emotions and desires; Sappho and Pindar Poets Sappho and Alcaeus, who flourished in the 42 Olympiad (612-609 B.C.)
II. Greek Literature Herodotus lived during Persian Wars; The Histories describes battles and public debates Herodotus (484 BC - 425 BC) the “Father of History”
II. Greek Literature Thucydides wrote about Peloponnesian War Thucydides (460 - 404 BC) wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War
II. Greek Literature Xenophon fought in Persia; wrote about famous men of his time
II. Greek Literature Greeks created a form of writing for entertainment - drama, the art of playwriting Ancient theatres were open spaced. One of the better-preserved theaters is located in ancient Epidauros. The theatre is famous for its acoustics - viewers sitting in the higher seats far away from the orchestra can hear the performers. The seats are made of marble.
II. Greek Literature Dramas began with festivals to honor Dionysus; two forms of drama - tragedy and comedy Greek Chorus
II. Greek Literature Three greatest tragic writers were Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides Euripides c. 480 - 406 BC Sophocles c. 496-406 BC Aeschylus c. 525-456 BC
II. Greek Literature Greatest comedy writer was Aristophanes
III. Greek Architecture and Art Greeks expressed love of beauty through art and architecture
III. Greek Architecture and Art Few original paintings and statues survive