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Chapter 5 Notes

Chapter 5 Notes

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Chapter 5 Notes

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  1. Chapter 5 Notes Ancient Greece

  2. Chapter 5 Notes • Greek Achievements • The ancient Greeks made great achievements in philosophy, literature, art, and architecture that influenced the development of later cultures and ideas

  3. Chapter 5 Notes • Greek Philosophy • Search for knowledge and wisdom • Golden age of Greek philosophy 400-300 BCE • 3 greatest philosophers of ancient Greece • Socrates – credited as the first great Greek philosopher • Studied broad concepts of truth, justice, and virtue • Believed people could learn best by asking questions • Plato – student of Socrates, founded the Academy • Believed philosophers were best suited to govern because they make “good” decisions • Best known work “Republic” • Believed every material object that exists was only a reflection of an ideal that did not exist

  4. Chapter 5 Notes • Aristotle • Student of Plato at the academy • Used reason (clear/ordered thinking) and logic (process of making inferences) to understand the natural world • People can do the most good by practicing rational thought • Contributed greatly to the development of science

  5. Chapter 5 Notes • Greek Literature • Greeks excelled at poetry, history, and drama • Several types of poetry: epic, descriptive, lyric • Homer – debate whether Homer actually existed • Best known for his epic poems “The Iliad” and “The Odyssey” which describe the Trojan War, gods/goddesses, and heroes • Works not written down originally, but influence many cultures over space and time • Hesiod – wrote descriptive poetry, which described the works of gods and the lives of peasants

  6. Chapter 5 Notes • Sappho – Greek woman known for lyric poetry • Poems were accompanied by music from the lyre instrument • Poems dealt with emotions of daily life, marriage, love, relationships • Pindar – lyric poet • Wrote poems to commemorate public events – Olympic Games

  7. Chapter 5 Notes • Several key people provided histories of ancient Greece • Herodotus – first major writer of history • Detailed major events of the Persian Wars • Best known work “Histories” • Did not always use reliable sources – led to erroneous historical information • Thucydides • Detailed major events in the Peloponnesian War • Used primary sources to construct his history of events • More critical of his sources, ignored unreliable ones • Xenophon – historian/soldier/philosopher • Used personal experiences to describe events in history • Helped us learn a great deal about Greek life

  8. Chapter 5 Notes • The Greeks wrote dramas for entertainment • Two types: tragedy and comedy • Tragedy focuses on hardships faced by the hero • Aeschylus (es-kuh-luhs) – wrote tragedies • Plays were about myths and history • Best known play is “Oresteia” about the Trojan War • Sophocles (sahph-uh-kleez) – wrote tragedies • Plays concentrated on the suffering people brought upon themselves due to their own flaws • Best known play is a trilogy based on King Oedipus • Euripides (yoo-rip-uh-deez)– wrote tragedies • Plays were about people’s suffering due to chance or irrational behavior • Best known plays are “Bacchae” and “Medea”

  9. Chapter 5 Notes • Comedies focus on satire and exposing social flaws • Aristophanes (ar-uh-stahf-uh-neez) – wrote comedies • Plays satirized parts of Athenian society – government, religion, social policies • Best known plays are the “Clouds” and the “Birds • Greek Art and Architecture • Athenians enjoyed beauty, both written and visual – love of visual beauty expressed in art and architecture • Athenians wanted their city to be the most beautiful – constructed public buildings, temples, theatres • Parthenon was the grandest of all buildings • Set atop the acropolis • Impressive size and proportions – power and glory of Athens • Housed a giant gold and ivory statue of Athena

  10. Chapter 5 Notes • The Athenians used statues and art to decorate their city • Greeks were skilled at sculpting the human form • Greeks wanted their statues to look life-like, but not necessarily realistic • Some statues look as if they are in motion – contrapposto (Discobolus Statue) • Portrayed the subject as physically perfect – all statues depict beauty and grace • Most Greek paintings that have survived to the modern era are seen on pottery • Used two colors – red and black – red was the color of the clay and black was the color of the glaze • Paintings depicted movement, depth, and beauty