Chapter 5 Notes Ancient Greece
Chapter 5 Notes • The Classical Age of Greece • Marked by great achievements, specifically democracy, and war • Athenian Democracy • Conflict between the rich and poor led to a need for a change in government • The adoption of democracy would lead to stability and prosperity
Chapter 5 Notes • Several leaders attempted to stop/control the conflict before democracy was finally established • Draco – enacted harsh laws to control the conflict – ineffective • Solon – reversed the Draconian laws, outlawed debt-slavery, encourage trade, instituted a limited democracy where all men could serve in the assembly, but only the wealthy could run for and hold office – somewhat effective • Cleisthenes – broke up noble families, created 10 tribes for basis of elections instead of noble families, each tribe elected 50 men to represent them on the Council of 500 – successful
Chapter 5 Notes • Voting requirements: • 20 years old, military training, citizen, male, vote in all elections • 3 bodies of government: • Assembly – vote on laws – direct democracy • Council of 500 – make laws • Courts – heard trials and sentenced criminals • Archon – chief of state • Head of the assembly and council of 500 • Served 1 year term with no limits on reelection • Impeachable
Knowledge Check Point Why did Draco reform laws in Athens? Which of Athens early reformers was the most effective and why? Which people were allowed to vote? Why do you suppose Cleisthenes had the council of 500 work with the assembly?
Before Learning Activity Turn to 136, we will popcorn read the Persian Wars section together
Chapter 5 Notes • The Persian Wars • Greek city-states vs. Persia • Cause – Greek city-states in Ionia want independence from Persian rule – Ionians revolt against Persia and receive aid from Greece, but their revolt fails – Darius is mad and wants revenge on Greece for supporting the revolt • 3 battles: • Marathon – Darius – Greeks win • Thermopylae – Xerxes – Persians win • Salamis – Xerxes – Greeks win • Greeks win the Persian Wars
Knowledge Check Point If the Persians were cut off from their supplies after the Battle of Salamis how had the supplies been delivered? What were the consequences of the Battle of Salamis?
Chapter 5 Notes • The Golden Age of Athens • Following the Persian Wars Athens and Sparta competed for the most power/influence over Greek city-states – Athens wins • Athens and dozens of city-states form an alliance called the Delian League • More city-states wanted to join the league - Athens controlled the league as it grew in power and influence – becomes the Athenian Empire • Athens used the league’s treasury to rebuild the city becoming the cultural and political center of Greece • The rebuilding of Athens was the height of culture, largely due to Pericles – the Parthenon is constructed • Athens was the heart of Greek art and culture during this time.
Chapter 5 Notes • The Peloponnesian War • Cause – conflict between Athens and Sparta – Athens is too powerful/influential – Sparta and other city-states want to reduce the power/influence – fear that either side would become dominant causes the conflict • As Athens headed the Delian League, Sparta headed the Peloponnesian League • The war lasts many years, most of which is a stalemate – Sparta was supreme on land (army) & Athens was supreme on the sea (navy) – eventually call a truce • Truce does not last and war resumes, but a plague devastates Athens which allows Sparta to win the conflict • Sparta’s resources are stretched too thin and is defeated by the city-state of Thebes – leads to instability until the Macedonians conquer Greece
Knowledge Check Point What contributed to the Macedonian victory over Greece? Would you rather have fought for Sparta or Greece (Athens)?
Assignment Work with your partner on your Greece Project Work on your vocabulary Work on your questions for Chapter 5