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College and Career Writing Ready!

College and Career Writing Ready!

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College and Career Writing Ready!

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  1. College and Career Writing Ready! National College Transition Network Annual Conference November 15, 2013 Peggy McGuire

  2. OPENING ACTIVITY: FREEWRITING Spend 3 minutes responding in freewriting to the title of this session • DO write whatever comes to mind • DO keep writing even if it feels like you have nothing to say • DON’T worry about correcting or changing anything you write – YOU are the only audience!

  3. REREAD AND REFLECT • Identify ONE insight or question or concern that seems to be “most important” or seems to “stand out” in what you wrote. Then • Tell us what insight/question/concern you came up with

  4. TEXT ANALYSIS PROMPT In one or two complete sentences, identify three key outcomes that the author says will result from participation in this writing session.

  5. A “SIMPLER” WRITING TASK: list three key outcomes that the author says will result from participation in this writing session. A “MORE COMPLEX” WRITING TASK: Summarize the key outcomes that the author says will result from participation in this writing session.

  6. SESSION OBJECTIVES • Identify the kinds of writing (genres) that teachers can teach to meet the kinds of writing purposes and tasks/contexts (rhetorical goals) that their transition-level students may expect to find in High School Completion credentialing exams and in postsecondary coursework; • Explore how a research-based process of competent writing performance can guide instruction at the transition-preparation level; • Target instructional activities that they can use to encourage their students to Convey Ideas in Writing well enough to meet transition-level writing requirements; and • Try out tools and successful strategies for planning and conducting effective writing activities with students preparing for transition to postsecondary education and work.

  7. OVAE’S COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS STANDARDS FOR ADULT EDUCATION: THE INSTRUCTIONAL SHIFTS :

  8. 3 “SHIFTS” IN LEARNING FOCUS 1 – Complexity: Regular practice with complex TEXT and its academic LANGUAGE exposing students to • appropriately complex texts in both instruction and assessment. • frequently encountered academic vocabulary—language common to complex texts across the disciplines of literature, science, history, and the arts.

  9. 3 “SHIFTS” IN LEARNING FOCUS 2 – Evidence: Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational • For writing, the focus is on analyzing sources and conducting research… The standards require students to answer questions based on their understanding of having read a text, or multiple texts, not entirely relying on prior knowledge or experience.

  10. 3 “SHIFTS” IN LEARNING FOCUS 3 – Knowledge: Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction • an extended focus on literacy – comprehension of informational text -- in the domains of science, history, and technical subject areas

  11. 3 “SHIFTS” IN LEARNING FOCUS 1 – Complexity: Regular practice with complex TEXT and its academic LANGUAGE exposing students to • appropriately complex texts in both instruction and assessment. • frequently encountered academic vocabulary—language common to complex texts across the disciplines of literature, science, history, and the arts.

  12. ANOTHER KEY ASPECT OF DEFINING “COMPLEXITY”: WEBB’S DEPTH OF KNOWLEDGE Which seeks to describe levels of “cognitive complexity” or “demand on your brain” of different reading and writing TASKS

  13. LEVELS OF “COMPLEXITY” ACCORDING TO WEBB’S DEPTH OF KNOWLEDGE: Level 1: Recall Level 2: Basic Application of Skills/Concepts Level 3: Strategic Thinking Level 4: Extended Thinking

  14. FYI: OVAE’S PLANS FOR THE NRS * The OVAE-appointed expert panel considering the impact of these “shifts” on accountability reporting was expected to release a first draft of its report in June 2013. * This report will be “used internally” by OVAE to make decisions about any changes to the NRS in the future. * Bottom Line – it will be some time before we know if/how NRS will change.

  15. OVAE’S COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS STANDARDS FOR ADULT EDUCATION: GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF ELA/LITERACY :

  16. ELA/LITERACY STANDARDS * Identify the most significant elements of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects *Focus on • Careful examination of text • the close connection between comprehension of text and acquisition of knowledge. • i.e., the texts that students read and the kinds of questions students should address as they write and speak about them.

  17. ORGANIZATION The standards have been bundled into five grade-level groupings: • A (K–1), Beginning Adult Basic Education Literacy • B (2–3), Beginning Basic Education • C (4–5), Low Intermediate Basic Education • D (6–8), High Intermediate Basic Education • E (9–12), Low Adult Secondary and High Adult Secondary Education. “to more closely reflect adult education levels of learning”

  18. ORGANIZATION • The standards are separated into four strands: Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language. • Each strand is headed by a strand-specific set of College and Career Readiness (CCR) Anchor Standards identical across all levels of learning (providing focus and coherence). • Each anchor standard has a corresponding level-specific standard illustrating specific level-appropriate expectations.

  19. ALSO, Because of the centrality of writing to most forms of inquiry, research standards are prominently included in the Writing strand as well.

  20. OVAE’S COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS STANDARDS FOR ADULT EDUCATION: THE ANCHOR STANDARDS FOR WRITING :

  21. CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) • Crafting Arguments • To support claims • In analysis of substantive topics/texts • Using valid reasoning • And relevant/sufficient evidence

  22. CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 2. Crafting Informative/Explanatory Texts • to examine and convey complex ideas/information • clearly and accurately • through effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. • includes the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.

  23. CCR Anchor Standards for Writing 3. Crafting narratives • to develop real/imagined experiences or events • using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences. NOTE: Narrative is not explicitly described at L5 but assumed to be incorporated into persuasive/informative writing at that level.

  24. CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

  25. CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 5: Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach • focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. • Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 at this level (i.e., grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, style, tone and precision of meaning).

  26. CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 6: Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others. • Add “update” writing as well • taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

  27. CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. • including self-generated question or problem to be solved • narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate • synthesize multiple sources on the subject

  28. CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. • authoritative sources • advanced searches • assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question • integrate information selectively to maintain the flow of ideas • following a standard format for citation.

  29. CCR Anchor Standards for Writing (same as L5 – i.e., describing postsecondary readiness) 9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. • Apply this standard to texts of appropriate complexity as outlined by Reading Standard 10 (i.e., “complex literary and informational texts”). • For literature, includes determining meaning of words/phrases including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; and analyzing cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone • For literary nonfiction, includes integrating quantitative or technical analysis with qualitative analysis in print or digital text

  30. CCR Anchor Standards – focus and patterns • 1 through 3 are about knowing writing genres and their rules/conventions • 4 and 5 are about using the full writing process • 6 is about technology • 7 through 9 are about analyzing sources (i.e., finding and using information from text) and conducting research

  31. Writing and the CCR Language Standards • CCR Language Anchors 1-3: editing “conventions” • CCR Language Anchor 6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

  32. THE 2014 GED EXAM:High School Equivalency+Career and College Readiness

  33. THE 2014 GED EXAM: The new GED is being designed to measure – provide evidence of -- the knowledge and skills most strongly correlated with success in career and college as defined by the Common Core and other state standard systems (TX, VA)

  34. Writing Requirements in The 2014 GED Test * Writing will be required in the Language Arts, Social Studies and Science Tests * “The essay” will be replaced by short (@ 10 minutes) and extended (up to 25/45 minutes) responses to “stimulus material” * “Fill in blanks” will be followed by a prompt asking for a few sentences to explain reasoning

  35. Writing Requirements in The 2014 GED Test * Integrating writing with reading and understanding * Writing in real-world contexts (text 75% nonfiction, 400-900 words passage length)

  36. Writing Requirements in The 2014 GED TestWriting about content (“themes”) in primary/secondary text sources and graphics – 20th century and post-9-11 US History, Civics/Government, Economics, Geography and the world, environmental science, etc.

  37. Writing Requirements in The 2014 GED Test2014 GED test items will ask examinees to read one or more texts (“stimulus”), and then to use writing to* ANALYZE* ARGUE* SUPPORT

  38. Writing Requirements in The 2014 GED Test*Writing to analyze/summarize ideas, positions and structures * Writing to interpret an author’s purpose* And

  39. Writing Requirements in The 2014 GED TestWriting to identify and evaluate arguments/claims of others, or to develop own argument, using text-based evidence as support – often from more than one text

  40. Writing Requirements in The 2014 GED TestSimulating real-life editing (applying knowledge of the conventions of standard written English to revise text)

  41. Writing Requirements in The 2014 GED TestIn other words, candidates will be asked to1) draw ideas from information they read, and then2) demonstrate ability to analyze, explain, sequence, evaluate, compare, contrast and synthesize those ideas3) by writing primarily informational and/or persuasive text.

  42. The Writing Process and Teaching/ Learning Strategies: from Research to Practice

  43. Key Components of the Writing Process1.PlanningAttention to writing purposeAttention to audienceWriting to think (generating ideas)Thinking to write (organizing ideas)

  44. 2. Generating Text3. Attending to Writing ConventionsGrammarSentence StructureSpellingPunctuationEtc.

  45. 4. Revising TextApplying knowledge of contentApplying knowledge of conventions

  46. Postsecondary writing success requires the ability to apply a recursive composing process – planning, drafting, evaluating, and revising (Hillocks, 1986).

  47. In the postsecondary classroom, … students who write effectively draw upon strategies that include planning, evaluating, and revising text to accomplish a variety of goals, such as writing a report or expressing an opinion with the support of evidence. …writing is (also) a means of extending and deepening students’ knowledge, a tool for learning subject matter. (National Commission on Writing, 2003).

  48. If students earn a GED credential but cannot plan, evaluate, or revise written text to write a report or express an opinion with the support of evidence, or if they cannot use writing as a tool for learning new subject matter, they may not be fully prepared for college-level coursework. (National Commission on Writing, 2003)

  49. National Research Council (2011). Improving Adult Literacy Instruction: Options for Practice and ResearchPostsecondary writing success depends upon the ability to apply the full process of writing – planning, drafting, evaluating, and revising – along with an ability to regulate strategy use (how to select, implement, and coordinate writing strategies; how to monitor, evaluate, and adjust strategies) to achieve writing goals

  50. The COMMON CORE developers also say1) high-quality writing results from careful planning, drafting, and meaningful revising.2) the discipline used to create, reshape, and polish pieces of writing prepares students for occasions when they must write quickly and clearly on demand, whether in the workplace or in college.