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MUSCULAR SYSTEM

MUSCULAR SYSTEM

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MUSCULAR SYSTEM

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  1. MUSCULAR SYSTEM

  2. FUNCTION THE MAIN FUNCTION OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM IS TO MOVE THE BODY

  3. FUNCTION OTHER FUNCTIONS: • Posture or muscle tone • Heat production

  4. DID YOU KNOW… THAT THERE ARE OVER 600 MUSCLES IN THE BODY!!!

  5. MUSCLES ARE ATTACHED TO BONES BY TENDONS • LIGAMENTSATTACH BONE TO BONE

  6. TYPES OF MUSCLES There are three different types of muscles: • Skeletal muscle • Smooth muscle • Cardiac muscle

  7. SKELETAL MUSCLE • Attaches to bones • Responsible for skeletal movements • CNS controls the skeletal muscles • Under conscious, or voluntary, control • The basic unit is the muscle fiber with many nuclei • These muscles are located all over the body (there are approximately 639 skeletal muscles)

  8. SMOOTH MUSCLE • Found in the walls of the hollow internal organs • Under control of the autonomic nervous system • Cannot be controlled consciously • Smooth muscle cell is spindle-shaped and has one central nucleus • Contracts slowly and rhythmically

  9. CARDIAC MUSCLE • Found in the walls of the heart • Under control of the autonomic nervous system • Has one central nucleus • Cardiac muscle cell is rectangular in shape • The contraction of cardiac muscle is involuntary, strong, and rhythmical

  10. SKELETAL MUSCLES • ORIGIN OF MUSCLE – THE MORE IMMOBILE OR STATIONARY ATTACHMENT (USUALLY PROXIMAL) • INSERTION OF MUSCLE – THE MORE MOVABLE PART (USUALLY DISTAL) • THE MUSCLE CROSSES THE JOINT AND PULLS THE INSERTION SITE FOR CONTRACTION OF THE MUSCLE

  11. SYNERGISTIC MUSCLES • MUSCLES WITH THE SAME FUNCTION OR THAT WORK TOGETHER TO PERFORM A PARTICULAR FUNCTION

  12. ANTAGONIST MUSCLES • MUSCLES WITH OPPOSITE FUNCTIONS • ARE NECESSARY BECAUSE IT CAN ONLY PULL A BONE IN 1 DIRECTION

  13. ROLE OF THE BRAIN • THE NERVE IMPULSES FOR MOVEMENT COME FROM THE FRONTAL LOBES OF THE CEREBRUM • THE MOTOR AREA GENERATES IMPULSES AND CAUSES CONTRACTION

  14. ROLE OF THE BRAIN • THE CEREBELLUM CONTROLS CONTRACTION AND RELAXATION OF MUSCLES AND COORDINATION

  15. MUSCLE TONE • A STATE OF SLIGHT CONTRACTION • ONLY SOME OF THE MUSCLE FIBERS CONTRACT AT A TIME AND THEY ALTERNATE TO PREVENT FATIGUE

  16. MUSCLES NEED ATP TO CONTRACT • MUSCLE FIBERS PRODUCE HEAT, ABOUT 25% OF THE TOTAL BODY HEAT AT REST

  17. ENERGY USE • ATP BUT IT IS DEPLETED IN A FEW SECONDS • CREATINE PHOSPHATE • GLYCOGEN – THE MOST ABUNDANT ENERGY SOURCE

  18. GLYCOGEN  GLUCOSE CELL RESPIRATION BREAKS DOWN GLUCOSE AND ATP IS PRODUCED GLUCOSE + OXYGEN  CARBON DIOXIDE + WATER + ATP + HEAT

  19. TYPES OF EXERCISE • ISOTONIC – MUSCLES CONTRACT TO BRING ABOUT MOVEMENT • AEROBIC • IMPROVES MUSCLE TONE, STRENGTH, AND SIZE OF MUSCLES

  20. TYPES OF EXERCISE • ISOMETRIC – INVOLVES THE CONTRACTION OF A MUSCLE WITHOUT MOVEMENT • INCREASES MUSCLE TONE AND STRENGTH • NOT AEROBIC

  21. MUSCLE SENSE • THE BRAIN’S ABILITY TO KNOW WHERE OUR MUSCLES ARE AND WHAT THEY’RE DOING

  22. EACH MUSCLE FIBER HAS THOUSANDS OF CONTRACTING UNITS CALLED SARCOMERES THAT ARE ARRANGED END TO END IN CYLINDERS CALLED MYOFIBRILS • Z LINES ARE THE BOUNDARIES OF A SARCOMERE

  23. OXYGEN SOURCES • HEMOGLOBIN (Hgb) – CARRIES OXYGEN ON THE RED BLOOD CELLS • MYOGLOBIN – THE PROTEINS IN MUSCLE FIBERS THAT STORE OXYGEN • IRON IS NECESSARY TO BIND THE OXYGEN

  24. LACTIC ACID • WHEN THE BODY RUNS OUT OF OXYGEN, IT’S CALLED OXYGEN DEBT • THE INTERMEDIARY IS CALLED LACTIC ACID • IT CAUSES MUSCLE FATIGUE

  25. HOW CONTRACTIONS OCCUR • SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY – THE NERVE IMPULSE ARRIVE AT THE AXON TERMINAL AND STIMULATES THE RELEASE OF ACETYLCHOLINE • THIS GENERATES ELECTRICAL IMPULSES AT THE SARCOLEMMA • MYOSIN FILAMENTS PULL ACTIN FILAMENTS TO THE CENTER OF THE SARCOMERE

  26. MUSCLE FIBERS • EACH MUSCLE FIBER HAS ITS OWN MOTOR NERVE ENDING CALLED THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION • THIS IS WHERE THE MOTOR NEURON TERMINATES ON THE MUSCLE FIBER

  27. THE AXON TERMINAL IS THE ENLARGED TIP OF THE MOTOR NEURON AND IT CONTAINS SACS OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS • THE MEMBRANE OF THE MUSCLE FIBER IS THE SARCOLEMMA THAT CONTAINS RECEPTOR SITES FOR NEUROTRANSMITTERS • THE SYNAPSE IS BETWEEN THE AXON TERMINAL AND THE SARCOLEMMA

  28. MYOSIN AND ACTIN ARE THE CONTRACTILE PROTEINS • TROPONIN AND TROPOMYOSIN ARE THE INHIBITORY PROTEINS