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IAS 2019 Co-chairs’ choice, 22 July 2019 MOAX0104LB PowerPoint Presentation
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IAS 2019 Co-chairs’ choice, 22 July 2019 MOAX0104LB

IAS 2019 Co-chairs’ choice, 22 July 2019 MOAX0104LB

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IAS 2019 Co-chairs’ choice, 22 July 2019 MOAX0104LB

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  1. No occurrences of neural tube defects among 382 women on Dolutegravir at pregnancy conception in Brazil • IAS 2019 Co-chairs’ choice, 22 July 2019 • MOAX0104LB G. Pereira, A. Kim, E. Jalil, F. Fernandes Fonseca, B. Shepherd, V. Veloso, R. Rick, R. Ribeiro, A. Beber, K. Jayathilake, R. Girade, R. Lima, F. Maruri, A. Caruso, C. McGowan, A. Benzaken, J. Castilho, B. Grinsztejn for The National Cohort Study of Dolutegravir and Pregnancy Outcomes in Brazil

  2. Conflict of Interest Disclosure • I have no conflict of interest.

  3. How was it possible? Universal HIV care & ART free of charge (1996) Computerized ART distribution system (SICLOM) Every person on ART Rules based on national guidelines DTG for 1st line (2017) Use in pregnancy systematically restricted As of May 2018> 22,624 women between 15-49 years were on DTG in Brazil NTD signal led to a national investigation Dolutegravir use in Brazil

  4. Aim • To estimate the risk of NTD in infants born to women receiving DTG and non-DTG ART regimens at time of conception in Brazil • Primary outcomes of interest: Composite outcome for multivariable analyses • All NTD • Stillbirths • Abortions* * Elective abortions are illegal in Brazil. All abortions presumed to be spontaneous.

  5. Methodology HIV clinic • Retrospective cohort of every women identified in SICLOM as possible exposure to DTG or RAL during pregnancy (2017-2018) • Unexposed group: pool of women with exposure to EFV during pregnancy (2015-2018) • EFV 3: DTG 1 • Systematic data collection by trained public health professionals: • Chart review of all health services • Maternal demographic, behavioral, HIV history, comorbidities, obstetrical history, prenatal care, and birth outcomes Antenatalclinic REDCap Maternity

  6. Methodology • Exposure: periconception window (16-week period) • +/- 8 weeks of estimated date of conception (EDC) • (1) 1st or 2nd trimester ultrasound (preferred method), • (2) last recorded menstrual period (LMP), and • (3) gestational age at delivery or 3rd trimester ultrasound • Statistical approach: • Calculation of NTD incidence with Wilson 95% CI among women with and without DTG exposure • Matched propensity score weighted logistic regression for composite pregnancy outcome for • Any DTG vs. EFV only • Sensitivity analyses: Only DTG vs. Only EFV / Only DTG or RAL vs. Only EFV • Used multiple imputation for missing data

  7. Results Inclusion Criteria Source: SICLOM/ MoH Brazil • Allwomenwithpossible DTG or RAL exposureduringpregnancy: • Indication of pregnancy in SICLOM, • Women of childbearing age on DTG whom were switched to an approved ART regimen for pregnancy, • Women who received IV AZT one time. Women with possible prenatal exposure to DTG Exclusion Criteria • No confirmed pregnancy • No periconception ART exposure • ART exposure including medications other than DTG, RAL, EFV • Missing/unknown periconception ART or birth outcomes

  8. Cohort Creation Total pool of presumed pregnancies (SICLOM: 1/2015-5/2018) N=3390 women Pregnancies with complete investigation N=2507 • StartedRAL at week 9 of pregnancy: myelomeningocele and spina bifida • StartedEFV at week 10 of pregnancy: myelomeningocele NEITHER WOMEN HAD ANY EXPOSURE TO DTG BEFORE OR DURING PREGNANCY! • Women with exclusion criteria • N=1039 • 2 NTD cases:

  9. Periconception final cohort N=1468 (women with EFV, DTG, or RAL within 8 weeks of EDC) Any DTG N= 382 51 247 1045 6 13 78 Any EFV N= 1115 Any RAL N= 125 28

  10. Table 1. Maternal characteristics at EDC

  11. Table 2. Prenatal characteristics

  12. Birth Outcomes • Of the total 1452 birth outcomes, there were no NTD observed • DTG-exposed women incidence = 0 [95% CI: 0, 0.0099] • DTG-unexposed women incidence = 0 [95% CI: 0, 0.003]

  13. Composite Outcome Regression Models Exposure Group vs. Only EFV Weighted PS Models 1.86 [95% CI: 1.05-3.26] EDC Covariates 1.48 [95% CI: 0.86-2.56] EDC + Prenatal Covariates 0.65 [95% CI: 0.10-4.13] EDC Covariates: age, education, race, region, years since ART initiation, years since HIV diagnosis, CD4 cell count, HIV RNA below limit of detection, epilepsy or antiepileptic medication use, tobacco, alcohol, crack/cocaine, number of previous pregnancies, prior adverse pregnancy outcome, any folic acid use, BMI Prenatal Covariates: number of prenatal visits, syphilis, diabetes, gestational hypertension, average weight gain per week 0.54 [95% CI: 0.09-3.38] 1.36 [95% CI: 0.74-2.51] 1.08 [95% CI: 0.60-1.95]

  14. Limitations • Retrospective study • Missing data • Periconception ART exposure • While we observed no NTD events in our analysis cohort, it is possible that our study remained underpowered to detect a difference in exposure groups

  15. Conclusions • No occurrences of NTD in this national cohort study. • Folic acid supplementation in Brazil: Enriched flour and high prevalence of prenatal supplementation in this study • Pharmacovigilance is a priority for the Ministry of Health in Brazil • Results of this study do not conclusively indicate increased or decreased risk of stillbirth and/or abortion associated with periconception DTG exposure.

  16. Acknowledgements • Abstractors: • Supervisors: Gerson Winkler, Luciana Garritano, Sandra Gomes, Silvia Fruet • The National Cohort Study of Dolutegravir and Pregnancy Outcomes in Brazil: Gerson Pereira, Ahra Kim, Emilia Jalil, Fernanda Fernandes Fonseca, Bryan Shepherd, Valdilea Veloso, Fernanda Rick, Rachel Ribeiro, Andrea Beber, Karu Jayathilake, Renato Girarde, Renato Lima, Fernanda Maruri, Catherine McGowan, Adele Benzaken, Jessica Castilho, Beatriz Grinsztejn

  17. Thank you! Gracias! Obrigada!

  18. InclusionCriteria • The identification of potential DTG exposures during pregnancy included: • Indication of pregnancy in SICLOM, • Women of childbearing age on DTG that underwent ART change to an ART regimen recommended during pregnancy, • Women who received a single dose of IV AZT. • Selection of unexposed group included women with possible exposure to EFZ during pregnancy from 2015 to 2018, on a 3:1 ratio. • Unexposed women were balanced by geographic location with women possible exposed to DTG/ RAL

  19. ExclusionCriteria • 245 women who were not pregnant on chart review • 52 women with unknown or missing birth outcomes • Included 5 women with DTG exposure • 713 were not on ART of interest during EDC window (either started after the window, were on other ART, or stopped before window) • 29 had missing ART data from window EDC

  20. Estimated Date ofConception • For each woman confirmed to have a pregnancy, we calculated the estimated date of conception by:  1st or 2nd trimester USG (preferred method), LMP, or EGA at delivery • USG: subtracting the estimated gestational age reported from the first prenatal ultrasound occurring in the first or second trimester (preferred method), or • LMP: as the first day of the woman’s last recorded menstrual period (if no ultrasound was obtained in the first or second trimester), or • EGA at delivery: by subtracting an estimated gestational age obtained from a third trimester ultrasound or at the time of delivery if no other data were available.

  21. Next Steps • Evaluation of other adverse pregnancy outcomes using this cohort • Evaluation of birth outcomes and DTG exposure later in pregnancy • Case-control study based on national surveillance data to complete the investigation regarding neural tube defects, abortions and stillbirths among children perinatally exposed to HIV