World History I Period 3
Mysteries of Egypt ****The Social Order of Ancient Egypt **** Ancient Egyptian Healing and Magic ****Egyptian Fashion ****Egyptian Gods ****Egyptian Mummies: Life After Death ****Egyptian Pyramids **** Nefertiti **** Family Entertainment **** Preparation for the Afterlife ***
The Social Order of Ancient Egypt By: Caroline Garis World History 1
Ancient Egyptian Social Life • The Pharaoh and the royal family stand at the top of the Egyptian society. • Then, under the pharaoh and the royal family were the Priests and Priestesses. • Next, were the Nobles, Scribes, Merchants, and Artisans. • Last, were the Farmers, Slaves, and Tomb Builders.
Sources: • www.nefertiti.com • www.bergen.org
Ancient Egyptian Healing and Magic Magic • According to Egyptian myth, heka, or magic, was one of the forces used in creating the world. • Priests were viewed as the key users of magic. They were thought to be guardians, holding a secret knowledge given to man by the gods. • Lector priests were the most respected users of magic. Lector priests read from ancient books kept in temples and palaces. • Magic rituals were used to protect kings, and help the dead have rebirth. • Hekau, or magicians, took over the role of priests in the first millennium B.C. • Scorpion- charmers were magicians who got rid of poisonous reptiles and insects by using magic. • Midwifes and nurses incorporated magic into their talents.
Ancient Egyptian Healing and Magic Magic Techniques • Magic was best preformed at dawn. • Magicians needed to be ritually pure. • The snake goddess Great of Magic was represented by using metal wands. • In the second millennium B.C., wands were made out of Semi-circular ivory. These wands symbolized the authority of the magician. Healing • Doctors thought that they could see what was wrong with their patients without examining them. However, many others believed that exact knowledge of a disease was a foundation of a cure. • The Egyptians had many prescriptions. Often there were a dozen or more remedies for a disease. • Most of the drugs were made from vegetables. Others were made from fruits and herbs.
The detail on an ivory wand. Torth, the god of magical knowledge. An ivory wand. Sources: Erman, Adolf. Life in Ancient Egypt. New York: Dover Publishing Inc, 1971. Pinch, Geraldine Dr. “Ancient Egyptian Magic.” BBC. 2003. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/magic_01.shtml> (30 Sept. 2003)
Egyptian Fashions These are the pictures of what noblemen and women wore in the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom
Egyptian Fashions Farmers wore kilts made of flax. They made shirts and tied them around the waist with a sash. Women wore dresses and decorated themselves with jewelry, makeup, and wigs. Noble men and women wore many decorations on their clothing.
Clothing • “When royalty, gods and goddesses were portrayed in statues, temple carvings and wall paintings, it was the beauty and self-confidence of the subject that was conveyed. Egyptian artistic conventions idealized the proportions of the body. Men are shown with broad shoulders, slim bodies, and muscular arms and legs; and women have small waists, flat stomachs and rounded busts. Both wear elegant clothing and jewellery, and stand tall with their heads held high. Their stately appearance commands the respect of all who gaze upon their portraits.”
Men • “The men wore knee-length shirts, loincloths or kilts made of linen. Leather loincloths were not uncommon, however. Their garments were sometimes decorated with gold thread and colourful beadwork. The priests, viziers and certain officials wore long white robes that had a strap over one shoulder, and sem-priests (one of the ranks in the priesthood) wore leopard skins over their robes.”
All the information came from www.civilization.ca/civil/egypt/egcl06e/html.
Egyptian Gods The Egyptians had a complex religion having many deities and personified aspects of nature. By: Wendy Powell
Amen • The hidden one. A primordial creation-deity.
Anubis • The god of the dead.
Bes • An dwarf god that was believed to guard against evil spirits and bring good luck.
Maat • Goddess of truth and justice.
Isis • The mother goddess.
Ra • The god of the sun
Egyptian Mummies: Life After Death Created by Katie Coffey World History I
The Basic Facts • Mummification is the preservation of a body • Purpose of mummification was to carry the six aspects (physical body, shadow, ka (spirit), ba (personality), and akh (immortality)) of a human being into the afterlife
10 Steps of Mummifying 101 • Wash body and purify ritually • Remove inner organs (Liver, Stomach, Intestines, Lungs) and place in canopic jars seen at the bottom of the page • Stuff cavity with natron • Remove brain and discard (thrown away) • Cover body with natron • Rubbed in unguents • Adorn body with gold, jewels, protective amulets • Wrap body in up to 20 layers of linen • Wrap head and cover with mask • Put in coffin Canopic Jars: The Four Sons of Horus (left to right) Qebehsenuf Duatmutef Ha’py Imset Intestines Stomach Lungs Liver
THE END Hi. I’m King Tut. Hope you liked the show
Egyptian Pyramids Christine Faulkner
What is a pyramid exactly? • pyramid – n.; a monument that resembles the geometrical figure of the same name. *
Question/Answers • Q: Who were pyramids build for? • A: For the pharoah and his family. • Q: What do they date back to? • A: Most date back to c-2686-2181 B.C. • Q: What were pyramids build with? • A: They were built out of a stone called mastaba. • They were build from limestone. • Q: What is the oldest type of pyramid? • A: King Zoser’s step pyramid in Saqqara (c.2658 B.C.)
Credits: • Mr. McDowell for all he does to teach us! • St. Margaret’s for giving me this awesome chance in life! • Emily Reynolds who encouraged and helped me edit this show. • Jackie Brunk for putting this whole show together. • My mother, Mary Faulkner, for always being there and encouraging me.
So who was she? • Her origins are a mystery. She may have been Amarnan • Her name means beautiful woman has come • Wife of Akhenaten, stepmother to Tutankhamen, She shared her husband with 3 other wives. • Her majestic beauty was know throughout the western world. • Co-Regent from 1352 BC to 1336 BC
Was she murdered? Egyptologists believe she was murdered for her attempt to turn Egypt into a monotheistic empireHer body was discovered in tomb KV35 in The Valley of the KingsShe was identified by a young Egyptologist named Joan FletcherHer body was mutilated to prevent her from entering the “after life”It is widely accepted that Nefertiti was murdered by priests angered by her (& her husbands) sac religious act.
Was she as beautiful as they say? • This is a bust recovered from the tomb, back in 1898 • If you want to learn more about Nefertiti, the discover channel has a great biography titled, Nefertiti Resurrected
Credits Thank You Mr. McDowell for inspiring me! Thank You Reese for helping me edit! Thank you all for watching and learning! By:Emily Reynolds • http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/nefertiti/story/story.html • http://www.-oi.unchicago.edu/OI/DEPT/RA/ABZU/DEATH.HTML
Family Life and Entertainment Michelle Chiles World History I
Entertainment * Enjoyed singing and making music. *Liked to fish , river boat outings, swimming or hunting crocodiles and hippopotumuses on the Nile * Also loved to give big parties; music and food were abundant
Family Life *Egyptians highly valued family life. * They treasured children *Wealthy and noble had slaves and servants for children *Prayed to the goddesses for children. *Magic was used
Preparation for the Afterlife By: Kate Turnage World History 1
Belief in the Afterlife • Egyptians believed strongly in life after death • This belief affected all Egyptians , from the highest noble to the lowest peasants • Osiris and Isis-the chief goddess and god promised them eternal life after death
A Fateful Test * Egyptain belived that the dead soul had to pass certain tests to go into the afterlife. * Dead soul was carried across the lake of fire to the hall of Osris. * Osris weighed dead souls againts the feather of truth. *Sinner's dead soul would be fed to the crocodiles.
PREPARATION : *Preparing for the afterlife required many stages * Rituals-most of the time just family *Priests would chant prayers while a man in a mask of Anubis (Jakel headed god that showed the way to after Life) did the mummification * *Anubis-judged the heart *If the soul was bad- sent to the underworld If it was a nice soul- Anubis would lead you to eternal life *Then they would cut open the body…they removed the Kidney, lungs, heart and more… They took out your brains – by extracting it from your nose • * Then they would fill the body up with salt for 42 days * Rapped the body up in up to 4” of cotton or linen * If you were a Pharaoh you would be placed in the kings chamber with all of your belongings