Chapter 22Population, Ecology, and Urbanization Demographic Analysis Fertility Mortality Migration, immigration, emigration Population Growth The Malthusian Trap Technology, industrialization and the Cornucopian view Urbanization History of the city Modern cities Urbanism The future?
DEMOGRAPHY:THE STUDY OF HUMAN POPULATION I GUESS OUR TWO MORE WON’T MATTER MUCH! • FROM 200,000 YEARS B.C. UNTIL SEVERAL CENTURIES AGO, THE HUMAN POPULATION GREW TO 20 MILLION • THE WORLD POPULATION IN 2005 • 6.5 BILLION PERSONS • 77 MILLION PERSONS ANNUALLY • DEMOGRAPHY • INTERESTED IN CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF GROWTH • LET’S EXAMINE SOME OF THE DISCIPLINE’S MORE BASIC CONCEPTS
FERTILITY • “FERTILITY”- IS THE INCIDENCE OF CHILDBEARING IN A SOCIETY’S POPULATION • “FECUNDITY” IS THE MAXIMUM POTENTIAL FOR CHILDBEARING (reproductive capacity) • “CRUDE BIRTH RATE” (see page 574 for formula) • THE NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS IN A GIVEN YEAR FOR EVERY THOUSAND PEOPLE IN A POPULATION • “CRUDE” BECAUSE IT TAKES INTO ACCOUNT EVERYBODY, NOT JUST WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE
Demographic Analysis • Demography – the scientific study of the size, growth, and composition of the human population • Demographic transition – a model that describes how fertility and mortality rates change as the society becomes industrialized • Fertility Rate – the average number of children born to a population of women during their lifetime • Crude birth rate = # of births per 1,000 members of a population • Crude death rate – is the number of deaths per 1,000 members of a given population • Infant Mortality Rate- # of infants per 1,000 who die before their first birthday
Demographic Analysis • Factors Affecting Birth Rates and Fertility Rates • Importance of children as part of the labor force • Urbanization • Cost of raising and education children • Educational and employment opportunities • Infant mortality rate • Average age at marriage • Availability of pension systems • Availability of legal abortions • Availability of reliable birth control methods • Religious beliefs, traditions, and cultural norms
Age Structure Diagrams(Population Pyramid; page 578) • Proportion of pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive populations • Rapid Growth- Guatemala, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia • Slow Growth- U.S., Australia • Zero Growth- Spain, Austria, Greece • Negative Growth- Germany, Sweden, Bulgaria • The line of demarcation is most noticeable between developed (industrial and post-industrial) and developing (pre-industrial) populations.
DEPENDS UPON WHICH SIDE OF THE EQUATOR ONE IS DISCUSSING • THE LOW-GROWTH NORTH • ZERO POPULATION GROWTH • A LEVEL OF REPRODUCTION THAT MAINTAINS POPULATION AT A STEADY STATE • POSTINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES • HAVE SHOWN SLOW DOWNS IN BIRTH RATES • “UNDERPOPULATION” MAY BE A PROBLEM! • THE HIGH-GROWTH SOUTH • POPULATION GROWTH IS A CRITICAL PROBLEM IN SEVERAL POOR COUNTRIES • WHILE BIRTH RATES HAVE FALLEN (SIX TO FOUR CHILDREN PER WOMAN), 180 NATIONS ARE IN TROUBLE OF OVERPOPULATION • IN SHORT, • FOR THE WORLD, FERTILITY IS DROPPING, BUT SO IS MORTALITY AMONG CHILDREN • CHALLENGE IS TO CONTROL BIRTH RATES IN POOR COUNTRIES AS WE DID DEATH IN THE PAST
Demographic Analysis • Migration– the movement of people from one place to another • Immigration – the movement of people into a geographical location • Emigration– the movement of people out of a geographical location • Push and Pull factors: • Push factors are reasons persons leave a location • Pull factors are reasons persons are attracted to a location • Much of migration is internal; people moving about their country without crossing international boundaries
THE MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE IN AND OUT OF A SPECIFIED TERRITORY • VOLUNTARY MIGRATION • USUALLY DUE TO ECONOMIC PUSH AND PULL FACTORS • INVOLUNTARY MIGRATION • FORCED MIGRATION DUE TO WAR OR OTHER SOCIAL CONFLICT • IMMIGRATION • MOVEMENT INTO A TERRITORY • EMIGRATION • MOVEMENT OUT OF A TERRITORY • RATES • IN-MIGRATION RATE • THE NUMBER ENTERING FOR EVERY 1,000 PEOPLE • OUT MIGRATION RATE • NUMBER LEAVING FOR EVERY 1,000 PEOPLE IN THE TERRITORY • NET-MIGRATION RATE • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IN- AND OUT-MIGRATION NUMBERS
Demographic Analysis • Four stages of demographic transition page 586 • Pre-industrial- High birth rate and high death rate • Transitional- High birth rates and declining death rates • Transitional- Declining birth rates and low death rates • Industrial- Low birth and death rates • Post-industrial ????? • Based upon the European experience and not necessarily a cross-cultural process
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORYLINKING POPULATION PATTERNS TO A SOCIETY’S LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT • STAGE ONE(PRE-INDUSTRIAL) • HIGH BIRTH RATES DUE TO ECONOMIC VALUE OF CHILDREN AND LACK OF BIRTH CONTROL • STAGE TWO(EARLY INDUSTRIAL) • HIGH BIRTH RATE AND LOWERED DEATH RATE GIVE BOOST TO POPULATION GROWTH (MANY OF THE DEVELOPING NATIONS TODAY MIRROR THIS STAGE) • STAGE THREE(MATURE INDUSTRIAL) • BIRTH RATES BEGIN TO MASK DEATH RATES AS POPULATION SURGE DROPS AS AFFLUENCE TRANSFORMS CHILDREN INTO ECONOMIC LIABILITY • STAGE FOUR(POST-INDUSTRIAL) • ECONOMIC REALITIES FORCE DROP IN BIRTH RATES TO THE POINT WHERE GROWTH IS STAGNANT OR VERY SLOW
Population Growth • The Malthusian Trap – Malthus predicted that as the population grew, famine, war, and disease would check the population. He further suggested that most societies were doomed to alternating periods of prosperity (and population growth) followed by periods of famine, war, and disease. • As technology has increased, and as the birth rates of industrialized countries have stabilized or even declined, the mass famines have not occurred. • Are the predictions of Malthus inevitable given the explosive rates of population growth in non-industrialized countries? What are the appropriate responses? Do we feed these billions of persons, or do we let nature take it’s course? (Neo-Darwinism) • Cornucopian view vs. neo-Malthusians
Population Growth • The Malthusian Trap – At the transition stage where there are high birth rates and declining death rates, and where there is sufficient food supplies to sustain the moderate increases in population, a mathematical problem occurs. The population will increase in a geometric progression such as 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128…., where as the food supply can only be increased through the conversion of raw land into agricultural production at an arithmetic rate such as 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14…. . The conclusion of this mathematical problem is doom and gloom; if the population continues to grow it will exceed the ability of agriculture to supply enough food, and starvation and death is inevitable. Without the surplus food stocks produced by the industrialized nations much of the worlds population would be in immediate jeopardy. • The Easter Island lesson – population and ecosystems
Why Are People Starving? • The amount of food produced for each person in the world is now much more than it was in 1950. • Starvation does not occur because the earth produces too little food. • Starvation occurs because particular places lack food. Why?
Urbanization • Historical rise of the cities • Migration to, and emigration from, cities; problems? • 45% of the worlds population is urban • Urbanization in industrialized nations
GROWTH IN U.S. CITIES • COLONIAL SETTLEMENT (1624-1800) • CAPITALISM’S IMPACT UPON SMALL VILLAGES ENSURED TRANSFORMATION • URBAN EXPANSION (1800-1860) • TOWNS SPRINGING UP ALONG TRANSPORTATION ROUTES • THE GREAT METROPOLIS (1860-1950) • IMPACT OF CIVIL WAR (FACTORY GROWTH) USHERED IN GROWTH • ONE-FIFTH OF THE POPULATION LIVED IN CITIES • URBAN DECENTRALIZATION (1950- TO PRESENT) • DESERTION OF DOWNTOWN AREAS FOR OUTLYING SUBURBS
LIFE IN THE BIG CITY • URBAN LIFE CAN BE CHALLENGING AND VERY DIFFERENT FROM EARLY RURAL SETTINGS • FERDINAND TONNIES • GEMEINSCHAFT • CLOSE TIES THROUGH KINSHIP AND TRADITION • GESELLSCHAFT • SOCIAL RELATIONS ARE BASED ON INDIVIDUAL SELF-INTEREST • EMILE DURKHEIM • MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY • SOCIAL BONDS BASED ON COMMON FEELINGS AND MORAL BONDS • ORGANIC SOLIDARITY • SOCIAL BONDS BASED ON SPECIALIZATION AND INTERDEPENDENCE • GEORG SIMMEL • THE DEVELOPMENT OF A “BLASÉ ATTITUDE” • A STRATEGY FOR SOCIAL SURVIVAL • ROBERT PARK AND LOUIS WIRTH • URBAN ORGANIZATION BASED ON DISTINCTIVE ETHNIC COMMUNITIES, COMERICAL CENTERS, AND INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS • A HUMAN KALEIDOSCOPE
THE ISSUES AT HAND:* RISING POPULATIONS* URBAN SPRAWL* DESPERATE POVERTY
Urbanization • Louis Wirth – three characteristics of urban life (ideal type) • Size – the larger the urban area the more socially diverse it becomes; people interact in terms of roles rather than whole personalities • Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, Tonnies, page 593 • Density– the closer people live together the more transitory and brief their relationships; associational! • Heterogeneity – diversity leads to tolerance of different life styles and ethnic groups (or anonymity and indifference). This has been the least validated characteristic, and often the most fervent prejudices are experienced in the cities. (requires meaningful contact)
Suburban Flight • Redlining - afraid of loans going bad, banks drew a line on a map around a problem area and refused to make loans there. • Disinvestment -withdrawal of investment. • Deindustrialization - a process by which fewer people work in manufacturing. In turn, these companies move to other countries.
Who Lives in The City? • The city is divided into little worlds that people come to know. • People create a sense of intimacy by personalizing their city. • Urban dwellers try to avoid intrusions from strangers. • Types of Urban Dwellers: • (1) the cosmopolites • (2) the singles • (3) the ethnic villagers • (4) the deprived • (5) the trapped
Sustainable Living • 1. Bring population under control • 2. Conserve finite resources • 3. Reduce waste • “Egocentric” vs. “Ecocentric” • How can some of the concepts discussed in this class be used to understand and address these issues?
Environmental Racism (Exploitation) “patterns of development that expose poor people, especially minorities, to environmental hazards” page 599 Factories, dumps, recycling facilities, chemical plants located in or nearby neighborhoods where the poor live and work.
Environmental Racism (Exploitation) • Bhopal India – 1991 – methal isocynate insecticide spill; 20,000 dead and 120,000 injured • Alang India and Chirlagang Bangladesh lead paints and asbestos; the poor dismantling ships • China, West Africa, and Pakistan recycling computers and TV sets; lead, arsenic, mercury, gold and silver 4. Native American lands and radioactive dump sites 5. Pollution in Newark, New Jersey and southside Chicago page 599
Concluding Remarks • The relationships between urbanization and the Great Social Transformation: (rural agricultural to industrialization) • Is catastrophe inevitable? • What are the ethical issues facing the industrialized nations concerning the fate of some of the non-industrialized nations that still have high birth rates and insufficient resources to feed it’s citizens? • Have we used our technology wisely in terms of population and ecology?