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Population and Urbanization Chapter 13 PowerPoint Presentation
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Population and Urbanization Chapter 13

Population and Urbanization Chapter 13

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Population and Urbanization Chapter 13

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    1. Population and Urbanization Chapter 13 By Dr. John Brenner

    2. Population Sociologist study population to consider the rates at which people are born, die and move in and out of countries They examine social factors that influence the population rate changes

    3. India Second largest population in the world1.03 billion 17% of the worlds population on only 2.4% of the worlds land mass About 1/3 the size of the U.S. First in the world to adopt family planning programs in 1950s 1/3 (343 million) of the people are hungry

    4. India Indias population is 1.08 billion, Chinas population is 1.31 billion USA is the third largest population at 295.7 million people Indias population will double in 43.8 years USA is only 4.6% of total world population emitting 24% of the carbon monoxidegreenhouse gases

    5. Population Demography-sociologist that focus on the study of human populations especially size and rate of growth Birth Rateannual number of births per every 1,000 people in an area 2004India at 22.94; USA at 14.01 Age-specific birth ratesrate for a specific group like women 15-54 India76.5; USA is 42.2 per 1,000

    6. Population Total fertility rate-average number of children that women in a specific population will bear in a lifetime Indiaaverage women bears 2.91 children United States2.07 children Consider that a woman has the potential to bear 20-25 children in her lifetime Sociologist want to know what factors make the child bearing different in different populations

    7. Population Crude death ratesannual number of deaths per every 1,000 people in a given population Rate is 8.49 for both India and 8.44 for the United States Infant mortality ratedeath rate among children one year old or younger United States rate is 7 and India 60 per 1,000

    8. Population Population pyramidseries of horizontal bar graphs representing a different five year cohort (people who share a common characteristic like agethose born in a 5 year period) Pyramids let us view relative sizes of the age cohorts of men and women in comparison to each other

    9. Population Expansive pyramidstriangular, broadest at base and gets smaller as it goes upincreasing population with mostly young Constrictivenarrower at base than in the middlemore middle-aged and older Stationaryall cohorts are relatively the same size, found in wealthy countries

    10. Population India and China account for 32.7% of the people born between 1990-2000 52% of the Indian population consist of men and women of childbearing ages India and U.S. have death rate of 8.5/1000 12.4% of U.S. population is over 65, only 4.8% in India Survival rates are not equal in these two countries

    11. Population Migrationmovement of people from one residence to another Migration ratedifference between the number entering and leaving an area Push factorsconditions causing people to leave (discrimination, unemployment, natural disasters) Pull factorsconditions encouraging people to come to an area (jobs, climate, tolerance)

    12. Population Emigrationdeparture from a country Immigrationentrance of individuals to a new country Three major international migration European exodus to colonize the world Asians to East Africa, U.S. and Brazil Force movement to 11 million Africans to slavery

    13. Population Internal migrationmovement of people within a country U.S. has high rates of thiseach year 43.4 million move In-migrationmovement into an area Out-migrationmovement out of an area Much of migration is rural-urban and much of it is movement a short distance

    14. Population Populations constantly change due to births, deaths, and migrations Natural increasenumber of births minus deaths in a year Rate of natural increasenatural increase divided by the size of a population at the beginning of a year Doubling timenumber of years needed to double the population size

    15. Demographic Transition A theory stating that a countrys birth and death rates are linked to its level of industrial and economic development This model presented here offers general characteristics It has three stages

    16. Demographic Transition Stage One High birth and death rates Mortality crisesfrequent fluctuations in death rate due to war, famine, and epidemics (called positive checks by Malthus) Life is short and brutallife expectancy is 20 to 35 with women, and children under 5 most vulnerable Living in the time of the Black Plague Women have an average of 7 live births to ensure that two of them will live to adulthood

    17. Demographic Transition Stage two Transition stagedeath rate declines due to 1. increases in food supply 2. Public health and sanitation increaseuse of cotton clothing and new ways to prepare food Change is not due to medical technology advances Demographic gapdeath rates decline and birth rates stay highpopulation increases Urbanizationincreases in the number of cities Around 1880 fertility declines as less of need for many children and the children have a greater chance of surviving to adulthood and the change in status of women

    18. Demographic Transition Stage 3 After 1930, birth and death rates decline and population growth slowed Life expectancy at birth increases to 70 Reduced infant, childhood and maternal mortality Now accidents, suicide, and homicides become the leading cause of death among young people For the first time in history people 50 and older account for 70% of the annual deaths Japan, and all the countries of North America and Western Europe are in this category

    19. Industrialization Definitions of countries industrial situation is difficult Developed/developingwill be called Labor-intensive counties First World/Third Worldwill be called Core economies Each of these groups would have different doubling time, infant mortality, total fertility, per capita income, percentage of the population engaged in farming and annual energy consumption

    20. Demographic Transition in India India was for a long time a colony of the British who came there for raw materials, labor and a market for goods Multinational corporations serve much the same function as the East India Company did in the past Demographic transition is different in India

    21. Demographic Transition in India Factors causing declines in total fertility 1. less than 50% of labor force works in agriculture 2. at least 50% of 5-19 year olds are in school 3. Life expectancy is at least 60 4. Infant mortality rate is less than 65/1000 5. 80% of females 15-91 are not married India has met the school and infant mortality condition 1.70% are employed in agriculture 2. 60% of women, 81% men are in school 3. life expectancy is 55 4.infant mortality 51.4/1000 5. almost all women are married by 19

    22. Demographic Transition in India The birth rates vary throughout the country 1975-77Prime Minister Indira Gandhi Promoted sterilizations and vasectomies And offered incentives to people This shows that increasing female education and status lower birth and fertility rates India has used family planning to reduce birth and fertility rates

    23. Demographic Transition in India In India the death rate started to drop in 1920 Medical advancements, agricultural practices and mass inoculations Demographic trap Population growth overwhelms the environments carrying capacity The concern that the population growth is so large that people are left without food

    24. Demographic Transition in India United Nations Food Programme (WFP) States it is not the lack of food but the lack of access to food that makes people hungry The Green Revolution was to use chemicals to make fertilizer to increase yields Short term gains but for wealthy farmers Displaced the poor farmers Use insecticides to kill insects then people cut down the trees causing floods for people in Bangladesh

    25. Demographic Transition in India Externality costscosts not figured into the price of a product but they a price that is paid non the less In Bangladesh the removal of the trees allowed for short term financial gain When the monsoon rains came terrible floods killed people In 199831 million were homeless and 918 dead Costs also include clean-ups of the environment

    26. Demographic Transition in India Urbanization encompasses 1. process where populations become concentrated in urban areas 2. changes in land use, social interaction, economic activity and landscape Indian villages contain fewer than 5,000 people

    27. Demographic Transition in India Mega Cities Cities that have 10 million people There 19 of these in the world New York and Los Angeles Bombay, Calcutta and Delhi 8% (492m) of the world live in this type of city Urban Agglomerations 20% of population live in 413 of these cities A central city and neighboring cities together Approximately, 1/3 of the worlds population lives in an urban agglomeration

    28. Demographic Transition in India Rate of urbanization in labor intensive countries is due to In Europe the population growth was able to emigrate to North or South America or other places In India the migrants to the city are coming to the city as they are forced off the land due to poor economic and environmental problems Come to the city with no where to live and few jobs No alternatives leads to disasters like the squatters around the plant in Bhopal 2,500 people were immediately killed due to a chemical leak

    29. Urban Vs Non-urban In U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) Include one or more cities with at least 50,000 people surrounded by densely populated counties261 in U.S. Central City--Largest city in MSA Suburb--An urban area outside the political bounds of the city Non-metropolitan-- geographical areas beyond the political bounds of the city

    30. Urban Vs Non-urban In U.S. U. S. Conference of Mayors wants community leaders and public to view cities and suburbs as socially and economically interdependent Largest 7 metropolitan areas in U.S. are among the worlds 30 largest economies Metro-New York is just behind South Korea in economy size and ranks higher than Australia, the Netherlands, Taiwan and Russia

    31. Urban Vs Non-urban In U.S. Regions classified as nonmetropolitan are equally as diverse as urban areas Many view rural regions as insular, low crime rates, strong social connections, little employment opportunities, distrust of outsiders, high poverty, low literacy and few services Some rural areas revolve around a single factory or university The most noticeable housing characteristic here is the 16.6 % (1 in 6) mobile homes