History of Human Population • Sir Thomas More- 1500’s,concerned about growing population, stated in his Classic “Utopia” what the ideal state of our planet should be.”..population is kept constant, crops are controlled and food is distributed at public markets and common halls…” • Thomas Malthus-British economist in 1798 argued that pop. Growth was NOT desirable. Pop. Increases geometrically(1,2,4,8,16..) while food supply increases artihmetically(1,2,3,4,5..) • Malthus believed that this would lead to famine, war,and other human sufferings. He advocated practices to keep populations down; marry late, have small families. • His ideas greatly influenced Charles Darwin Evolution Theory
Increases in Growth Rate • 100,000 years ago- mostly hunter and gatherers; lived in small groups/tribes(35 years maximum age, hi infant mortality rate,etc.) • 10,000 yrs. Ago- Agricultural revolution major period of pop. Growth. Est. pop. 9,000 yrs. Ago about 5-10 million people on earth • Industry-major pop. growth in the past 300yrs. -Health care: The germ theory-identified bacteria and other micoorganisms as agents for disease.(connection between health and hygiene.)major reason for decrease in death rate.
(Cont.) Increases in Growth Rate • Throughout history decrease in pop. Growth has also been recorded: examples and reasons: • The bubonic Plague 1348-1379 destroyed 25% of Europe’s Pop. England’s 50% • Famine- The Irish Potato famine 1840’s resulted in the death of more than 1 mil. People • Wars- 30 years war(1618-1648) 1/3 of the people in Germany and Bohemia were killed • WWII – 35-60 mil. People were killed
Miscellaneous Info! • What is it? • Bubonic plague is a potentially fatal bacterial infection called "Yersina pestis." Symptoms of infection include: • swollen, tender lymph nodes (called "buboes") • high fever • chills • headache • hemorrhages under the skin, causing blackish discoloration of the skin • The infected person may develop serious illnesses, such as pneumonia, blood poisoning (sepsis) or meningitis. How is it spread? • Bubonic plague is not usually spread from person to person. Small rodents, such as rats, mice and squirrels, carry the infection. Fleas that live on these animals act as "vectors" and carry the infection from the rodent to humans. People may get exposed to the bacteria from flea bites or from direct contact with an infected animal. • Does it still occur in the world? • According to the World Health Organization, there are 1,000 to 3,000 cases of bubonic plague worldwide each year.
Growth and Changing needs • One of the most serious problems we are facing is OVERPOPULATION! • Growth of population determined by: birth rate(per thousands) minus death rate(per thousands. Also immigration and emigration must be considered. • Demography: the science of the changing vital statistics in a human population. This is important when policy makers study pop. They need to know not only how many people there are but types of people making up the population • Societies with more people have more needs than a society with fewer people. Pop. Size NOT the only factor that determines the needs of a society. More industrialized societies generally use more resources than underdeveloped societies, while population is less.
Challenges of Overpopulation • Rapid population growth directly affects the global ecosystem • More space is needed-we push out other organisms; more resources are used-depletion of minerals, fuels and food. • All of this is interconnected-pollution from one country affect other countries, etc. • Human health problems will increase as crowding will spread disease faster; malnutrition is on the increase, and hygiene and lack of medical facilities are problems associated with overpopulation.
Controlling Population Size • Control birth rate? How? *******Empowering people to control the number of children? Convincing them that they should have fewer? FORCING people to limit size of families? ???????????? • Ethical, religious and moral issues make efforts to reduce the growth rate of the population difficult to implement. Social and religious beliefs about family size and birth control vary from culture to culture. • Technological advances that increase the carrying capacity of Earth by increasing available resources are often followed by spurts in population growth. • Also, as we control birth rate what are some other issues facing us? Aging and declining populations?
Next Major Problem • Aging and declining populations. Why are these as big a problem as controlling population Size? http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/