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Renewable Energy: The Wind-Hydrogen Option for Remote Communities in India PowerPoint Presentation
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Renewable Energy: The Wind-Hydrogen Option for Remote Communities in India

Renewable Energy: The Wind-Hydrogen Option for Remote Communities in India

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Renewable Energy: The Wind-Hydrogen Option for Remote Communities in India

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  1. Renewable Energy: The Wind-Hydrogen Option for Remote Communities in India Presented by: Dr. G. S. Grewal Electrical Research and Development Association (ERDA) ERDA Road, GIDC Makarpura Vadodara – 390 010 Presented at Transmission, Distribution & Metering India (Enabling Smart Grid & Smart Metering) November 11, 2010 New Delhi

  2. Energy Statistics For India (2005-06) • Coal Production : 401.5 Million Tonnes • Power Generation : 617.5 Billion kWh • Thermal Generation : 514.4 Billion kWh • Hydel Generation : 101.3 Billion kWh • Crude Oil Production : 32.2 Million Tonnes • Crude Oil Import : 99.4 Million Tonnes • Consumption of Petroleum Products : 111.9 Million Tonnes • Natural Gas Production : 32.2 Billion Nm3 • Fire Wood, & Dung Cake :300 Million Tonnes

  3. Energy Reserves : A Comparison

  4. Power Scenario in India

  5. Electricity Generation In India

  6. India- Primary Energy Pie Chart

  7. Sector Wise Consumption: India (2004-05)

  8. T&D Losses & Auxiliary Consumption

  9. Per Capita Energy Consumption: Some Nations USA 13,241 kWh AUSTRALIA 11,205 kWh UK 6,631 kWh SOUTH AFRICA 4,313 kWh CHINA 1,139 kWh

  10. Per Capita Energy Consumption: Global Metric WORLD AVERAGE ≈ 4000 kWh

  11. Indian Energy Scene Per capita electrical power consumption level is still very low. 1950 15.55 kWh 1985-86 178.00 kWh 1989-90 236.00 kWh 1993-94 310.00 kWh 1994-95 320.00 kWh 2001-02 401.00 kWh 2004-05 606.00 kWh

  12. Per Capita Energy ConsumptionIndia PRESENT LEVEL: 640 kWh

  13. Per Capita Energy ConsumptionIndia PRESENT LEVEL: 640 kWh TARGET: MISSION 2012: 1000 kWh

  14. Per Capita Energy ConsumptionIndia PRESENT LEVEL: 640 kWh TARGET: MISSION 2012: 1000 kWh PRESENT LEVEL FOR GUJARAT: 1320 kWh

  15. Bottom Line INDIA NEEDS TO CONSUME MORE ENERGY

  16. EnergyIntensityEnergy Cost As a Percentage of Manufacturing Cost

  17. Energy Costs In Indian Industry ( As % age of Manufacturing Cost ) • CEMENT : 34.9 % • ALUMINIUM : 34.2 % • GLASS : 32.5 % • CHEMICAL : 23.9 % • PAPER : 22.8 % • FERTILIZERS : 18.3 % • IRON & STEEL : 15.8 % • FOUNDRIES : 10.5 % • TEXTILES : 8.6 % • ELECT. ENGG. : 3.2 %

  18. Energy Efficiency

  19. Energy Costs In Indian Industry ( As % age of Manufacturing Cost ) Industry Unit India Developed Nations • IRON & STEELGcal/tonne 8 - 9.5 4 – 6 • CEMENT Gcal/tonne 1 – 4.4 0.6 – 0.9 • ALUMINIUM MWh/tonne 16 – 20 13 – 15 • PULP & PAPER kg Steam / kg 12 – 15 5 - 8

  20. Energy Intensities In Selected Industries ( Gcal / tonne ) STEEL CEMENT ALUMINIUM FERTILIZER • INDIA 9.50 2.00 33.00 11.25 • ITALY 4.03 0.89 ------ 9.92 • JAPAN 4.18 1.20 13.90 ------- • SWEDEN 5.02 1.40 16.50 ------- • U.K. 6.07 1.30 21.10 12.23 • U.S.A 6.06 0.95 9.50 11.32 • GERMANY 5.21 0.82 14.90 ------- • India over LOWEST 57.6% 59.0% 71.2% 11.8% • India over HIGHEST 36.1% 30.0% 36.1% -8.7%

  21. High Power Cost Makes Our Industry Noncompetitive

  22. KOREA 0.058 USA 0.060 CHINA 0.062 INDIA 0.095

  23. 85% Generation is Thermal Efficiency : 30% 1 kWh : 3 Units Coal/Gas/Oil T & D Losses : 30% - 35% 1 kWh to user : 4 to 5 Units Coal /Gas /Oil Capital Costs : 4 to 5 Rs. Crore/MW Add T&D - Rs. 60,000 to 70,000/kW Some Facts of Grid Connected Thermal Generation-I

  24. Lead time for setting up a power station is 5 to 10 years. Electricity cannot be stored. 1 kWh generation leads to generation of 1 kg of C02. Environmental pollution due to thermal power plants is a serious problem. Some Facts of Grid Connected Thermal Generation-II

  25. Carbon Emissions Total Global Emissions : : 6.5 Billion mT Carbon : 23 Billion mT CO2

  26. The World’s Energy Resources Are Limited! COAL - 100 YRS. OIL - 30 YEARS uranium - ??? GAS - 30 YRS thorium - ???? Human Beings ???

  27. Renewable Energy Sources Tidal Solar Wind Geo Bio

  28. Sources Of Energy NON-CONVENTIONAL / RENEWABLE / ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY • SOLAR ENERGY • WIND POWER • GEOTHERMAL • BIOMASS • TIDAL POWER and

  29. Sources Of Energy NON-CONVENTIONAL / RENEWABLE / ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY • SOLAR ENERGY • WIND POWER • GEOTHERMAL • BIOMASS • TIDAL POWER and • ENERGY CONSERVATION

  30. Economics of Renewable Energy

  31. Potential of Renewable Energy Technologies in India

  32. RealizationofRenewable Energy Technologies in India

  33. Summary of Present Energy Scene: India • India meets about 30% of its energy need through imports and likely to increase in future. • To sustained growth of 8%, India would need to grow electrical supply by 5-7 times. • Coal shall remain primary energy source till 2031. • About 15% of villages are not electrified. • Concerns for the threat to climate change. • Peak shortage upto 25%, (India average-11%). • MOP target of adding 100,000 MW generation capacity by 2012. • Not much change in rural household energy consumption in last decade. Integrated Energy Policy- Planning Commission, Dec 2005

  34. Pressing Problem • What is the role of renewable energy? • How to increase India’s known energy resources? • How to ensure energy security? • How to encourage clean energy system? • How to deal with persistent power shortages? • How to provide clean cooking energy for all? • How to provide access to electricity to all households? Integrated Energy Policy - Planning Commission, Dec 2005

  35. A Small Step in Providing a Sustainable Solution: A National Effort at ERDA • Development of Wind Hydrogen Based Cooking System for Remote Coastal Communities in India • Essential ingredients of the System are as Below: • Wind Energy Based Electricity Generation. • Electricity is Used to Run a Water Electrolyser to Generate Hydrogen. • Hydrogen is Stored and Supplied via Pipeline to Coastal Community Kitchens.

  36. Wind Hydrogen Based Cooking System Wind turbine storage Electrolyser Hydrogen Hydrogen pipeline

  37. Wind Hydrogen Based Cooking System • Clean fuel for cooking. • Stand alone - No other source required. • Negligible maintenance and recurring cost (economical). • Indigenous technology - needs validation, field trail.

  38. Why Hydrogen Can be Fuel India-I Universal fuel, can provide energy security. Available in unlimited quantity. Can be produced from sunlight, wind, bio mass etc. Wide applications –transport, power generation, cooking, etc. Stored energy that can be used later on demand. Non toxic, clean /non polluting. Will reduce global warming. Energy source for 21st century

  39. Why Hydrogen Can be Fuel India-II • Highest energy content per unit mass (120 MJ/kg). • Combustion energy cycles based on H2 higher efficiency than gasoline cycles (25 %). • Dynamics of combustion for H2 superior compared to gasoline and natural gas. • Higher flame speed in air(2.65 m/sec). • Higher diffusivity in air (D=0.61 cm2/sec). • Lower ignition energy (0.02 mWs). • H2 based fuel cells have efficiencies >60%.

  40. Energy Densities

  41. A Comparative Data Sheet of Fuels

  42. Areas of Concern • Generation (Economics) • Storage (Safety) • Application

  43. Electrolysis

  44. Production of Hydrogen From H2O 1). Cost of Producing H2 Using Electrolysis in the Thermodynamic Limit H2O(l) = H2(g) + ½ O2(g) at P = 0.1 MPa, T = 298 K E = V F Z : H2 = 2H+ + 2e- = 1.229 x 96500 x 2 = 237.2 kJ/mole = 0.065 kWh/mole = 0.065 x (1000/2) = 32 kWh/kg of H2 II). Cost of Producing H2 Using Electrolysis in a Real Cell = 1.5 x E =48 kWh/kg of H2 At Rs5/unit, the electrolysis cost then becomes Rc = 48 x 5 = Rs. 240 / kg of H2

  45. H2 Economics For IC Engines: Why Green Hydrogen is Required Current Petrol Cost in India = Rs. 55/ltr = Rs. 55,000/m3 Density of Petrol = 865 kg/m3 Hence Unit Rate of Petrol = Rs 64.00 /kg. Now H2 Has Three Times the Calorific Value of Petrol (11,8000 kJ/kg Against About 40,000 kJ/kg for Petrol) Hence Cost Equivalent for H2=Rs. 80/one kg. Equivalent of Petrol Bottom Line : If One Uses Just the Electricity Consumption Cost in Production of H2, Grid Electricity Costs Are Still Not Comparable With the Prevailing Cost Of Petrol. Hence Renewable Production of Hydrogen is Required.

  46. Hydrogen Storage Technologies Gaseous Liquid Solid State Metal Hydrides Slush (a mixture of solid and liquid Hydrogen)

  47. Storage - Hydrogen • Compressed gas storage tank • Higher cost of tank and process plant • Technology available • Liquid Hydrogen • Lower volume • Larger energy input • Chemical Hydrides • Hydrogen adsorbed • Technology still under development

  48. Some Pure Magnesium Facts Magnesium hydrides as MgH2 Has a storage capacity of 7.6% mass Energy density of 2.33 kWh / kg [120 x 103 x 0.076] = 9120 kJ

  49. Comparative Requirements

  50. Volume of 4 kg of Hydrogen Compacted in Various Ways Mg2NiH4 LaNi5H6 H2(Liquid) H2(200 bar)